By Rev. Merle C. Rummel
II. The FOUR MILE CHURCH
III. The Virginia Families
IV. The Settlement on the Four Mile
V. The Frontier
VI. The Dunkers
VII Four Mile Journal
General Anthony Wayne named it the Four Mile Creek, he crossed it four miles after he left Fort Hamilton as he moved north against the Indians. It came down from the northwest, from the stateline area of the new State of Ohio.
In 1803 the first settlers came to the headwaters of the creek, and settled on the Little Four Mile, at the Ohio state line. They were: two brothers, James Huston (w. Sarah) and Samuel Huston (w. Elizabeth Brown), who had heard of the area from their cousin, Matthew Huston, a wagoner for General Wayne. They came from Bedford Co PA (brother, Thomas Jr -w. Tabitha Wright came later). Then there was Joseph Kingery and his brothers-in-law, John Miller and Abraham Miller. Elder Jacob Miller came out from Franklin Co VA to the Miami River Valley (Dayton area) in 1802, where John and Joseph then lived. Now, they were surveying the "Gore" -"Indiana" east of the White Water River, inside the Greenville Treaty. There was the Indian Road from Fort Hamilton (it went on to Muncytown in IN) that ran right through the area. This was the west extension of the early settlement on the Miami River and on Twin Creek in Ohio. This is the west edge of Huston Woods State Park, just east of College Corner OH.
When the Gore opened in 1805, "Potter" John Miller (w. Phoebe McClure) was the first settler, south on the state line, but others of the children of Elder Jacob were with him. Philip Lybrook (w. Anna Miller) went north on the Little Four Mile. Joseph Kingery (w. Eve Miller/Ritter), remained on their farm inside the Ohio line. Tobias Miller (w. Sarah Henderson), Abraham Miller (w. Nancy Huston), Daniel Miller (w. Elizabeth Shidler) and an assumed cousin, Col. John Miller (w. Nancy Capper), settled west and south of Potter John. Aaron Miller (w. Elizabeth Hardman) bought land here, but returned to Dayton, then in 1819 with his brother David Miller (w. Sarah Hardman), followed the Indian Road to the edge of the 12 Mile Purchase to the new Nettle Creek Church.
This was the opening of a major settlement. The Lower Four Mile Church was established among the Millers and other families near College Corner. The building was constructed in 1845, one mile north of town. Among its fellowship were: Peter Ridenour (w. Margaret Darcuss), with his brother Joseph (w. Susanna Troxel), of Hagarstown MD. He returned to his original stop on the Indian Road at the Little Four Mile. (Peter had come in 1800, but there were just too many Indians! His place is now part of the Huston Woods State Park (Ohio). From Franklin Co VA were: Jacob Kingery, father of Joseph and Jacob, came with his children and their families: Martin (m. Mary Webb), Christian (?m. Jennie Abshire), John (m. Anna Richardson), Samuel (m. Sarah Hickman), Abraham (m. Mary Huston), Eve (m. William Brown) and Catherine (m. Jacob Huston). They settled just west of now College Corner. Peter Eikenberry came to the Twin Creek in Preble Co OH, with his brother Henry, but several of his children came on to the Four Mile. They settled just north of College Corner. Henry (m. Elizabeth Kingery), Daniel (m. Sarah Kingery), Samuel (m. Martha Crawford), Mary (m. Baltzer Lybrook), Lydia (m. Daniel Miller). Edmund Moss (ws Elizabeth Barnett/ Elizabeth Boyer), father of William, came with his children: John (m. Elizabeth Landis), Francis (m. Mary Webster), Edmond (m. Nancy Kingery), Mary (m. Jacob Fisher), Henry (m. Francis Wilderson), Ray (m. Hancy Hopper), Fanny (m. Joseph Ellis). Two brothers of Elizabeth (wife of Peter Eikenberry) and Mary (wife of Henry Eikenberry) came to the Four Mile: Daniel Landis (w. Francis ?) and David Landis (w. Elizabeth Peckleshimer), and their sister Rebecca (m. David Shideler). David and Rebecca lived in the north, Upper Four Mile Church. Christopher Witter (w. Mary Ulrey) came from Cocalico Creek, Ephrata PA and settled on the Indian Road at the ford over the Little Four Mile. (His was the farthest north of the Lower Four Mile settlement.) His children were: John (m. Anna Moyer), Elizabeth (m. John Moyer), Samuel (m. Mary Brown), Jacob (m. Agnes Huston), Mary (m. Isaac Miller), Sarah (m. Jacob Ritter), Susannah (m. Henry Brown), George (m. Fanny Kingery), and Catherine (m. John Coffman). John Moyer was a first minister here.
Upper Four Mile Church centered around the Lybrook family: Baltzer (m. Mary Eikenberry), John (m. Fanny Toney), Jacob (m. Elizabeth Crawford), Philip (m. Hannah Pentecost), Barbara (m. Jacob Kingery), Catherine (m. Poindexter Toney), Elizabeth (m. William Moss), Nancy (m. John Nelson), Eve (m. Jesse Toney), Phoebe (m. Martin Kingery) and Sally (m. James Toney). John returned to Franklin Co VA to marry his sweetheart, and brought back his mother-in-law Susannah Toney. Soon her family came: Edmund (w. Malinda Chastain), Carey (w. Betsy Doran), Jesse (w. Froney Sink), Avirilla (widow of William Thompson), Hannah (m. Matthew Peters). Daniel Brower (w. Sarah Shively), with his son John (w. Rebecca Marshall) came to the Four Mile and lived on the Ohio side of the State Line Road. [Daniel's sister, Barbara, married Tobias Miller, bro of Elder Jacob, at the Coventry Church PA] His dau, Elizabeth, married Daniel Eikenberry. Others who settled in the Upper Four Mile include: Daniel Hart, from Wilkes Co NC; David Rinehart (w. Magdalena Fellers) from Maryland (1815), a deacon at the Four Mile Church, he lived in Ohio; John Rife (w. Francis Crist) from the Upper Valley of VA (1816), lived northwest of the church, near Boston. The two congregations were separated by about 7 miles (horse and buggy) and meetings alternated between them. The Upper Four Mile Church was built in the 1850's and is the existing congregation. The building has been slightly remodeled. There are several family Cemeteries that hold the early members of the Four Mile Community: the major one is the Railsback-Lybrook Cemetery on Elder Baltzer Lybrook's farm just south of the Upper Church; and the Kingery Cemetery on Joseph Kingery's farm northeast of College Corner. Others include the Witter Cemetery at the ford on the Indian Road; the Keffer Cemetery on Thomas Huston's farm (Cottage Grove); the Universalist Cemetery on the Franklin Co line; the Concord Church Cemetery in Ohio; and the College Corner Cemetery.
The Indian Road crossed a ford over the Whitewater River about 8 miles west of the Upper Four Mile Church. Daniel Fiant settled there in 1802 (Squatter!! He actually lived west of the Treaty Line, in Indian territory!) His wife was Salome Gaby, daughter of Elder Martin Gaby of the Oley Congregation, PA. The Whitewater Meeting House was established among their children and neighboring families. This included Daniel Fosher (w. Marillis Eckel) of Bedford Co VA, a medical doctor. This church was served from the Upper Four Mile.
As Indiana Territory began to open for settlement, the Four Mile families went across the state. In 1809 the 12 Mile Purchase opened new lands and many Dunkers, including Aaron and David Miller, poured up the Old Indian Road to the Nettle Creek Congregation at Hagerstown IN. In 1818, Potter John Miller's son, Tobias (ws. Jane Wolverton/Margaret Robinson), moved to the Wabash River in the west of the new state. Soon others from the Four Mile went there, including Potter John and old Elder Daniel Miller. This was the Raccoon Creek Church. Michigan Territory (northwestern Indiana) opened about 1825, Squire Thompson (w. Charity Florea) and Jacob Huston (w. Catherine Kingery) were earliest settlers there, with many others following them, including ministers Aaron and David Miller of Nettle Creek. In 1833, Tobias Miller and family moved to LaPorte. His son, William (w. Mary Miller) lived in South Bend IN and was a state Legislator. The Indian Road went to Muncytown, then from there trails went west and northwest to the Wabash and Tippecanoe Rivers (Kokomo, Peru and Lafayette IN). Many younger children of the Four Mile families settled on the Wild Cat Creek, including children of Elder William Moss. He began circuit preaching for them, and buying up good available farmland in the process. In 1839 he moved to Mexico IN, partially as a result of the 1831 Cholera Epidemic (he lost his wife, then married Mary (Eikenberry) widow of Elder Baltzer Lybrook and they moved).
Four Mile families went west with the front wave of settlement. Squire Thompson was one of the early '49ers, although he died in the Cholera Epidemic in San Francisco shortly after he arrived. Several of his sons are early settlers in California. Samuel Eikenberry (w. Martha Crawford) went to Danville IA (1837), was a '49er, came back to Nebraska, served on the state Constitutional Convention and in its first legislature. Samuel Miller (ws. Elizabeth Kinzie/ Margaret McKenzie), son of Tobias, was a genius in many ways. He designed and built his uncle Potter John's stone house, and earliest buildings on the Miami University campus, then he was a trustee of the Village of Chicago, with his brother John (w. Jane Crane), then after his wife died he moved back near his father and built the Lighthouse at Michigan City IN (a state historic monument) for his grain shipping business. James Toney (w. Martha Thornton) moved to St Joseph MO where he split shingles, then in 1847 took the Oregon Trail, in time to arrive for the massacre of the Whitmans. Daniel Leedy (w. Mary Huston) went to Jefferson Co IA before going as the first Brethren Minister to Oregon in 1854. Jesse Toney (ws. Eve Lybrook/Anna Marrilla Doran) moved to Illinois after his wife died (in 2 wagons, with the dog under the second), split logs with Abraham Lincoln, and started out for California in 1849. His only son died at Neosha MO, and he stopped there. Minister Thomas Miller (ws. Susan Young/Susan Ronk) moved from Raccoon Creek to Missouri and was killed at Ft Scott KS by Civil War Raiders. In 1855, both Elder Daniel Millers led a settlement to Monroe Co IA, including many Four Mile children and Elder Philip Moss (w. Barbara Moyer) (from Wild Cat Creek) led a similar settlement to Butler Co IA.
The New Light Revival of the 1830's had an affect on Four Mile, with the formation of Christian Churches on both the east and west sides of Upper Four Mile Church. Carey Toney (Sr) was a charter member of the Concord Church of Christ, and John and Nancy (Lybrook) Nelson donated the land for the Hannah's Creek Christian Church. The Universalists had a major Center at Philomath, just past the ford at the Whitewater River, northwest on the Indian Road. Whether Peter Han, Dunker Universalist minister of Kentucky, came here is unknown, but most of Col John Miller's family went Universalist, and Tobias Miller became a minister in the Universalist church before he moved to LaPorte IN in 1833.
With all the migration away from here, the Lower Four Mile Church closed, and the congregation centered in the Upper Church. Elder Abraham Moss (w. Nancy Rife) remained as Elder until his death in the 1860 Typhoid Epidemic. Elder Daniel Brower succeeded him and held the church in love and fellowship through the tumultuous days of the Civil War, the Industrial Revolution and the Division of the Church, there seems to have been little discord and problem among the Brethren on the Four Mile. Elder Jacob Rife (w. Esther Stanley) moved from the family farm to a farm just north of the church until just before he died in 1903.
Elder Carey Toney (w. Sarah Moss) succeeded him and in turn he was followed by his son-in-law, Elder Cornelius Petry (w. Emma Luella Toney).
[from The Virginia Colony, by Merle Rummel, unpublished manuscript/book]
III. The Virginia Families
The settlement on the Four Mile consisted of Dunker families and their kin and neighbors from the Blackwater River Valley and adjacent Maggodee Creek area in Franklin County, Virginia. This area is about 10 miles south of Roanoke, VA., and is on the east face of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Cahas Mountain stands be-tween the Blackwater and Maggodee, separated from the main Blue Ridge. In the years preceeding the American Revolution, Pennsylvanians had begun moving south-ward along the face of the mountains. The government prohibited settlements across the mountains, although there were some who ignored the prohibition and ventured into the west. Because of the prohibition, natural population expansion portrayed itself in this southwest movement. Michael Danner of the Little Conewago Church in Pennsylvania had blazed a trace called the Monocacy Road, from near Hanover, PA., into Maryland, to Frederick and on to Harpers Ferry, where it crossed the Potomac. The Dunkers and Mennonites, with other German peoples of greater Lancaster County, had moved down this trace into Maryland, settling along the Monocacy, on the Pipe Creek and the Beaver Dam Creek east of the mountains. There two original churches were established with those names. Others settled in Middletown Valley between the mountains west of Frederick and up it to the Pennsylvania state line into Franklin County, PA. Others crossed the mountain range into the Conococheaque valley and to Hagarstown, along Braddock's Army Road going to Pittsburg. The pressures of the mounting conflict between the colonists and Great Britain brought an effort of escape by these non-aligned pacifist people of a foreign origin. The conflict was not theirs, yet they were being pressured to choose, so they chose to move. The young families, and some older, crossed the Potomac at Harper's Ferry and found the Indian Great War Path running south down the Valley of Virginia. This was a very fertile land much to their liking. The Great War Path divided at Roanoke and the settlers divided too. Some continued on down the Valley to the Holstein and Clinch Rivers in Tennessee. Others crossed through the river gap and went down the east face of the Blue Ridge to the Yadkin, in Wilkes and Rutherford Counties in North Carolina. The story of Daniel Boone is a popular tale of these moves. On the face of the Blue Ridge in Franklin County, VA. the path crosses Maggodee Creek and the Blackwater River. Here is Boones Mills, named for one settling family. Here settled other families, among them the ancestors of those who came on to the Four Mile.
ELDER JACOB MILLER
Elder Jacob Miller is called the first Dunker Elder in Virginia, in Ohio and Indiana. There has been considerable effort made to determine who he was, but little proven information has been found, probably one reason is due to the popularity of his name. A statement by Peter D. Ridenour, 1907, was that Jacob Miller (his great-grand father) was born in Franklin County, Pennsylvania, in 1735. At that time Lancaster County was much larger than now, extending clear to Bedford County in the mountains, which included Franklin. It is not proven that he was born there, there was no Franklin County then. Since his brother married at Coventry, wife Barbara Brower, their parents may have lived there, there were Millers at Coventry. This would put his origins much farther east. Coventry was in Chester County, on the Schuylkill River, not far outside of Philadelphia. There was an early migration from Coventry to the Conococheague. The Conococheague was west across the Blue Ridge. Elder Jacob may have lived in the western Lancaster area, now Franklin Co., or in Maryland below Waynesboro, before his travels began. The next statement is made that he is the son of an immigrant, connected with another that he is the son of one of three brothers: Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. The latter follows the normal pattern of family names, since all three are names of his sons.
Some interesting materials were found by Rev. Austin Cooper and referred to in his book on the Brudersthal (Brothers Valley) Somerset County, PA. In the Stoney Creek Church Council Meeting Record Book, on the inside of the back cover, with the date - 1806, was found a listing of Elders from that church. One name was "Jacob Miller, now in the Miami Valley, Ohio. Ordained 1765". George Adam Martin, a leading Dunker (Sabbatarian) was at Conococheague, and in 1763 went to Brothers Valley. Young Jacob Miller, living nearby, could have been influence by this, moving out the next year. George Adam Martin was an Ephrata Sabbatarian. Problems arose in Stoney Creek over the Sabbitarian beliefs, and Elder Jacob returned to Maryland. Instead of Elder Jacob going to Virginia in 1765 (according to a tradition), it seems he went west, to Brothers Valley. In 1773 Jacob Miller bought land in Franklin County, VA. This is our earliest record of his presence in Virginia.
One other indicator about Elder Jacob comes from the 1850 U.S. Census, Indiana. Son Tobias was born 1773. As an elderly man in 1850, he was living with his son, William, in South Bend, IN., when the census taker came by. He told the Census that he was born in Pennsylvania. He was with a daughter, Martha Farrand, when the census taker came to LaPorte, IN. He told that Census that he was born in Maryland. Jacob's son, John, was born in 1769 in Maryland.
In 1754, an Abraham Miller dies near Frederick, MD. He has considerable land on Fishing Creek. Abraham's son, Jacob, is executor of his estate. The tax returns for Frederic County, Maryland, present more about Fishing Creek. In 1761, Jacob Miller purchased land on the "sources of Fishing Creek", some 5 miles west of Catoctin Furnace on Catoctin Mountain, slightly south of modern day Camp David. Jacob Miller, payed taxes there in 1763, then not again until 1766, then the years 1768 to 1772, then sold the land in 1782. Could this Abraham have been Elder Jacob's uncle? Could Elder Jacob have returned from Brother's Valley to the Monocacy River at Catoctin Mt. to land he owned near his kin on the east side of the Mountains? There seems to be some indication that he went to Virginia from the Beaver Dam Church. This is in the church area.
Elder Jacob's wife's name, the mother of his children is not known. A DAR applicant says that she was Mary Goodwin, that they were married Dec. 30, 1763, in the St. Paul's Lutheran Church in Philadelphia. This can only be based on the similarity of names and that one of his daughters, probably his eldest, is named Mary. This does not hold true to custom: the Dunkers were strong on marriage within the faith and this would violate even early concepts of this tradition.
There was a tradition of naming children followed among these families. The eldest son was named for the father's father, the second son for the mother's father. Successive sons were named for chosen members of either family, including the father. Similarly for the daughters: the eldest daughter is named for the mother's mother, the second daughter for the father's mother and accordingly for the remaining daughters. It must be noted that this causes great confusion of names in the families, especially after several generations. This tradition is not religiously adhered to, or possibly unknown infant and small child deaths would change the pattern. Sometimes, because of family desire or a person's renown, the names for the first and second children were reversed. The name Mary for the eldest daughter could mean that his wife's mother's name was Mary, or that Elder Jacob's mother was Mary, not that his wife was Mary. If the above conjecture is correct, then Jacob's wife's name was Elizabeth.
A picture of Elder Jacob proposed here is that he was married in 1762 or 1763. His family had moved from Coventry to the Conococheague, in the Antietam Congregation near Hagarstown MD. He may have lived there. In 1764 daughter Mary was born, that same year the young family moved to the Dunker Settlement at Brothers Valley. He may have already been a Dunker minister when they moved. Tradition says he was advanced to the ministry under William Stover (that would have been in the Antietam Church of the Conococheague, centering around the Dunker Church building on the Antietam Battlefield). A man was advanced to the ministry after he proved himself as a deacon. He could not become a deacon until he was married. The progress was: the church elected a person as a Deacon, then under prayerful consideration he could be advanced to Ministry. He would only be ordained an Elder, after he had proven himself as a Minister. In the frontier churches, as Conococheague and Brothers Valley, advancement was quick to the person that showed ability. Due to problems at Brothers Valley over George Adam Martin's teachings, the family only remained there a couple years, and returned to the Catoctin by 1766. This was near Jacob Danner's meetings of the Beaver Dam Church, and only a short distance from the Monocacy Road. As families began to move on down the Monocacy Road to Virginia, including families from the Beaver Dam Church, Elder Jacob found his eyes turning in that direction. He undoubtedly traveled into the Valley and liked what he saw. In 1773 they decided to moved to these new lands. Jacob purchased land in Virginia and sold his farm in Maryland. With a new baby, Tobias, Jacob would not subject his wife to the trials of the raw frontier, so he seems to have taken her to family kin north near Waynesboro, PA., while he built a cabin and cleared the new land in Virginia. His cabin site is identified some 100 yards west of the Blue Ridge Parkway about 10 miles south of Roanoke, VA., at Adney's Gap. (He sold this property to Adney when he left in 1802.)
Tradition has said that Elder Jacob Miller went to Virginia in 1765. We have found no trace of him there at that time. Indeed, if the Brothers Valley record is correct, he went west that year, with the migration from the Conococheague and Elder Peter Miller and George Adam Martin, instead. There are still many Millers in the Blue Ridge area of Maryland and Pennsylvania. They may be descendents of the kin of Elder Jacob.
Elder Jacob Miller seems not to have gone alone to Franklin County, VA. George Chapman Miller, grandson of his son, Jacob Miller Jr, who remained in Giles County, VA., records that there were five Miller brothers, all ministers, who came down the Valley and to Franklin County at this time. However, they scattered as they moved westward. Of Millers in Franklin Co. at this time, Baltzer and Tobias are known to be brothers of Elder Jacob, others listed in the US Census, who could have been his brothers, were Daniel and Isaac. Baltzer's will names also a sister, Catherine. If the author's hypothesis that Col. John Miller is a cousin of Tobias Miller is correct, then another brother of Elder Jacob lived in Washington Co. MD., or in the Conococheague community, until he died, sometime about 1790. The 1839 letter by Elizabeth, daughter of Col. John, says that a brother of her father, "Uncle Martin and his son David", were come visiting from Pennsylvania. Col. John was bound out to someone in Pennsylvania while still a minor. (The Martin Miller family of Penn Valley, Center Co PA, needs to be investigated further. The Center Co History says they moved there soon following the Revolutionary War. John Miller, presumeably of this family, came to the Bullskin Church, Clermont Co OH, about 1800.)
Elder Jacob Miller is credited with creating the strong Dunker community still in existance in and around Franklin County, VA. Tradition says he, in companionship with William Smith, an English convert, would hold meetings in the communities there. Elder Jacob would preach in German, Brother Smith in English. While some Smith families are in Union County, IN., there is no record of any connection to this companion of Elder Jacob, but no proof that there is not. They lived in the Lower Four Mile Community, but we have no connections given of connection to the Four Mile Church, which would have been likely if they were children of William Smith. An early Eikenberry letter, identified with 1806 and Dayton, says: "stopped at old Brother Millers, he is still living alone, with the English preacher." This poses problems to the study unless reference is to some other Brother Miller, since Barbara Miller, widow of Elder Jacob came to the Four Mile following his death.
Elder Jacob Miller was the first Dunker Preacher among the settlers in Montgomery, Preble and Darke Counties, OH. Here again the church is strong. He was the first Dunker Elder in the area and reputed to be the first in Ohio. He preached to white and Indian and won the respect of the latter, also. It would be natural for Elder Jacob Miller to have been involved in establishing the Four Mile Church, both because he was one of the closest Dunker Elders, but even more so, that these were his own children and neighbors from Virginia.
Elder Jacob Miller died at his home on the banks of the Great Miami River south of Dayton, OH. on July 5, 1816. He was buried there on the farm. His grave was lost for almost a century and rediscovered and marked on the anniversary date of his death.
Barbara Miller, wife of Elder Jacob, is said to have come to the Four Mile after the death of Elder Jacob. Tradition says she had the family Bible with her. She lived with Philip and Anna (Miller) Lybrook on the Upper Four Mile. The Census records show two older women in the Lybrook home in 1820, which would support this. If the wedding papers sent to me by Gertrude Mann are correct, Barbara (Lybrook) Miller was the eldest sister of Philip, and also step-mother to his wife. No trace of the Bible has been found.
The children of Elder Jacob Miller were major settlers on the Four Mile. John Miller and a Gingerich (probably Joseph Kingery) were at Dayton before Elder Jacob came there. John settled about 1 mile south of present College Corner, on Indian Creek, as the first settler in 1805. Eva Miller had lost her first husband, Samuel Ritter, then married Joseph Kingery. They lived about 1 mile north and mostly east of College Corner on the Little Four Mile, about the same distance from the Indian Road ford over it in Hueston Woods State park. The Kingery Cemetary is on the banks above the Four Mile on their land.
Tobias Miller took land on Indian Creek west of Potter John. Abraham Miller lived just east of Joseph Kingery along the Four Mile. He is said to have brought out the first blacksmith to the community. Daniel Miller became one of the first ministers in the Four Mile Church. His land was located just east of Cottage Grove, or about 1 1/2 miles west of the Lower Four Mile Church. Isaac Miller came to Dayton, OH. but died in the War of 1812. Two of his sons, Abraham and Isaac, and his daughter, Rebecca Morgan, moved to the Whitewater Valley at the corner of Franklin, Fayatte and Union Counties. They were neighbors to their Webb kin there.
Sons Aaron and David Miller were first ministers at the Nettle Creek Church at Hagerstown in 1818. There is an Aaron Miller who purchased land on the Four Mile. Aaron Miller had a son born in Indiana at about that time, but his next child is born back in Montgomery Co. before his move to Hagerstown, so likely he came here to the Four Mile, but he did not stay long.
The traditional statement that Elder Jacob Miller was the first Elder in Virginia, Ohio and Indiana must be recognized in those exact terms. There were Dunker lay families, many of whom were deacons, and there were some who had been advanced to the ministry who were in Virginia and Ohio before him. He is credited with being the first Ordained Elder in these states. The fact that he was involved in the formation of the Four Mile Church, the first Dunker Church in Indiana, added that state to the list.# While this author tends to discredit the traditional date of 1765 for the move to Virginia, based on the previous material, the date of 1773 is still 2 years previous to the next Dunker Elder in Virginia, Elder John Garber, also of the Beaver Dam Church, who came to the Flat Rock Church community in the middle Valley.
Elder Jacob Miller should also be recognized as not going to a new area. While he settled on the top and eastern slope of the Blue Ridge, just west of this ridge, near Blacksburg, VA. is an old community (now innundated) called Dunkard Bottom. Here in 1745, Alexander Mack Jr., son of the founder of the Dunker Church and later Elder of the mother church in Germantown, PA., fled with companions (Eckerlins) as they withdrew fellowship from the Dunker - associated sabbatarean community, the Ephrata Cloisters of Lancaster County, PA. He came there in the neighborhood of one William Mack, possibly an uncle. He stayed there until forewarning of Indian problems brought his return to his Germantown home. In 1748 one of them, Henry Miller, recorded that he despised the life there in Dunkard Bottom, and withdrew. (See following on Lybrooks) Elder Jacob Miller could easily have known of this area, if not from kin, then from a branch of the Ephrata Cloisters, the Snow Hill Cloisters, that is still in existance in Franklin County, PA. adjacent the Miller area.
Philip Lybrook married Anna Miller, daughter of Elder Jacob Miller. He first came to the Upper Four Mile in 1806. There is some confusion about his identity. The 1886 Union County History relates Philip Lybrook as being of Dutch origin, born aboard ship enroute to the New World. This could be the confusing of father and son. Martha Allen identified our Philip, as the son of Philip Lybrook or Leibrock. On this basis, the elder Philip Lybrook settled in the Valley of Virginia, at the mouth of Sinking Creek, near to Dunkard Bottom and near the settlement of Drapers Meadows. Baltzar Lybrook (originally the German, Palsar) lived in the same area, and existing records do not include an elder Philip. Duplication of family names may be the cause of the confusion. Some identify Baltzar as father of our Philip.#
This area was on the eastern end of the Shawnee Indian War Path which followed the Kanawha River (and New River, as the eastern portion of it is called) from the Ohio, through the West Virginia Mountains. While we have heard many times of the Wilderness Road of Daniel Boone into Kentucky, and of Braddocks and Forbes Roads to Pittsburg and migration down the Ohio River, this Path became a major migration route for central Virginia and the Carolinas to the Ohio River areas of Kentucky and to the old northwest. (see Appendix VI, Kanawha Way Bill)
On July 31, 1755, Philip Lybrook Sr. was requested by Col. James Preston of Draper's Meadows to come over and help in the harvest. (Wheat or small grain, seemingly connected to the Frontier militia.) Young William Preston, the messenger, and Philip Lybrook took the short route over the mountain to Draper's Meadows. While they were going over the mountain, Shawnee Indians from Ohio had struck the fort and settlement, killed Col. Preston (a primary goal) and massacred most of the inhabitants. They took captive Mary Ingles, who eventually escaped. The Indians followed the path around the mountain to get the Indian scout, Philip Lybook. Enroute they killed a settler by the name of Barger, cut off his head and put it into a bag, probably of skin. When they arrived at the Lybrook home, only Mrs. Lybrook, with her small son, was there alone. On learning that Philip was gone, the Indians presented Mrs. Lybrook with the gory bag, saying she would find an acquaintance, and left without harming her.
Another raid occurred on August 7, 1774. Several stories come down which seem to have occurred in this raid. Patricia Johnson (in her book ELDER JACOB MILLER) records that Theophilus and Jacob Snidow and Tom McGruff were taken captive in this raid and while Jacob Snidow and Tom McGruff escaped, Theophilus Snidow was taken on by the Indians and held a number of years. It would be in this raid that Philip Lybrook Sr. broke his arm fighting the Indians, and his daughter saved the lives of several young children by hiding them in a canoe in the canebrakes along the river. (Our traditions say this is the Barbara, who later married Elder Jacob Miller.) Several Lybrook children were killed. John Lybrook claims to have outrun the Indians and escaped. Another sister, Katherine (seemingly in this raid, but Huston memiors say "the massacre of Abb's Valley") was in a canoe on a Sabboth morning with another girl and a boy. The other girl was shot by the Indians and she fell into the river. Katie rowed ashore. An Indian coming toward her paused to fight off a dog that came from the fort and Katie made her escape. The boy in the canoe was never heard of again. Following the raid, the families at the fort noticed that the dog did not eat its food, but carried it off. On the third day they followed it. They found a young man lying by a log. He had been scalped. He said he had only suffered for water. (Dorothy Womack says that these tales correspond to stories of Virginia history of the area, but with different names.)
Following this raid the Lybrook family moved acrossed the Blue Ridge and settled on the headwaters of the Blackwater River. They lived below the Millers on the ridge, but above the Toneys on the slope of Cahas Mt.
The Toneys were one of the English families of Virginia that had slowly moved west. The de Tone, de Toedni and de Stafford families were brothers, cousins to William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, and Viking descendents of Malahulc, brother-in-law to Morejarl, advisor to Harold I, King of Norway in the 9th Century. All three were in the 1066AD invasion of England. William Toney was a Royalist who had to flee Cromwell's Roundheads and came to Virginia in 1654. A descendent William Toney took land at Cahas Mt. on the Blackwater River in 1773. He had 3 wives and 15 children. Six of his sons fought in the Revolution. Two of these came to the Four Mile, as did 3 daughters and one other son.
It is said that one summer's work digging sang (ginseng) in the mountains (now West Virginia) would bring enough to buy a farm back in settled country. John (eldest of the 3rd wife, and a veteran of the Continental Line) went to Georgia (possibly So. Carolina) and married his cousin Mollie (Mary) Toney. He brought his family to the New River in 1782, and built the first brick house west of the mountins. From there the Toney brothers, kin and families regularly made Sang Camps along the Coal River (now Boone County, WVA.)
Family traditions says that in 1794, Indians hit their camp and killed many. Local history says only a couple people were killed and does not even mention the Toney camp. (This is adjacent to the afore mentioned Shawnee War Path.) It is known that John sold out his land on the Coal River following this and never returned. Also, while in 1782 he had brought his family to the New River, now he has born to him his only known child. Completely breaking the traditional naming pattern, this child is not given any family name. Others of the brothers take a second wife following this, or a sister's husband remarries. (Several of these families return to the Coal River camp area to stay some 15 years later.) Several families lack children carrying some of the traditional family names. There is good reason to accept the family tradition.
Chloe Niccum in about 1880 was asked by a cousin to record what she could remember from her grandfather, Carey Toney, telling of the family. She, as a teenager, had helped her ill Aunt Fannie (Kingery) Toney care for all three living aged grandparents. She remembered what they said, but did not realize that the Virginia they talked about was divided during the War between the States and some of her information was now in the new State of West Virginia. Her record reached back to before the Revolution. Using the Shawnee War Path the Toney's were only one of several of the Franklin County families to settle into now West Virginia in the early 1800's, and this was only the first step in the move to the Four Mile.
Others of the Four Mile Church and Community had similar origins to the Millers. Four sons of Peter Kingery, originally the Swiss Gingrich, came down the Valley from Pennsylvania. Three of them ended up in Franklin County. Only Jacob came to the Four Mile. Dates of marriages and births indicate a considerably later date for their migration. Letters to kin are still being found and such would draw attention of a family looking west to this particular locale, where family already lived.
Peter Ridenour is recorded as coming to the Four Mile by pack train. He came from Hagarstown, Md., where the Ridenour family had lived for many years. They were one of the Coventry families that moved west and settled on the Conoco-cheague. Peter's brother, Francis, also came to the Four Mile and his married sister, Susannah Potterf, lived east in Preble Co OH. Hagarstown is on the old Braddock Road to Pittsburg, which would have brought him down the Ohio to Cincinnati and up the old Indian Road. Hagarstown is also considered to be the head of the Valley of Virginia, so the route down the valley, and through the mountains by the Shawnee War Path would have also been a good possibility. Christopher Witter was from eastern Pennsylvania. A Christopher and wife are named by Morgan Edwards as members at Cocalico, in 1770. Since our Christopher's father's name is recorded as Christoph, these could be his parents. The whole family, including married children (Moyers), came directly from Pennsylvania to the Four Mile, we have no records showing any time spent at any places between Pennsylvania and Indiana. Forbes Road to Pittsburg was a direct route for him, thence down the Ohio to Cincinnati. There are a couple other Witter families nearby, but no known connections to them.
The Browers are an old Dunker family originally from Coventry (PA). In Germany, they come from Neuwied, the same town as the Eikenberrys. Several Brower families are in Preble Co. including Barbara Brower, wife of Tobias Miller, the brother of Elder Jacob Miller. Daniel Brower came to the Four Mile. The Eikenberrys and Landis families record moving down the valley to Franklin Co., VA., before coming to Preble Co., OH. The parent families settled on Twin Creek, but younger members of the families settled on the Four Mile. The Shidelers lived in Washington Co., PA., but three of the children came to the Four Mile, likely coming down the Ohio by flatboat. Adam Rinehart and wife Hannah moved from Pennsylvania to Maryland with his brothers, then to Augusta Co., VA., in 1790. With several married children, the family moved to Lanier twp, Preble Co. in 1819. Son David moved to the Four Mile soon afterward. Daniel Hart was born in Wilkes Co., NC. This was part of the German settlement down the Carolina Road from Pennsylvania. Daniel moved from there back up the Quaker Trace to the Four Mile. These are routes of early families to the Four Mile. Each has its own story as history unfolds its secrets.
#Cooper, H. Austin,
Two Centuries of Brothers Valley Church of the Brethren, 1962, The Times, Westminster, Md. (The author was given a copy of this book by Bro. Cooper, due to some assistance rendered on it. Early in the beginning of this study, a telephone call was made to Bro. Cooper concerning the entry in the Stoney Creek Council Meeting Record Book. Bro. Cooper said: "On the inside of the back cover was a list of Elders ordained in the Stoney Creek Church: dated 1806. One name was: `Jacob Miller, now in the Miami Valley, Ohio.' After I had returned home (to New Windsor, Md.) and realized what it was I had discovered, I called back to Somerset (PA) to ascertain that was what was in the book. Several phone calls could not locate it and I finally made a trip back to hunt for it. We never did find the Council Meeting Book, it had disappeared." Bro. Cooper and the author determined a general outline of the moves of Elder Jacob Miller, but disagreed over which church he returned to when he returned to the Catoctin. Bro. Cooper always considered the early Beaver Dam Church to be an outlying congregation of the Pipe Creek Church, while the author heartily disagreed. Bro. Cooper was pastor of the Pipe Creek Church of the Brethren, while the author was pastor of the Beaver Dam Church of the Brethren. Both of us lived in New Windsor.)
Johnson, Patricia Givens,
Elder Jacob Miller, 1977, P S Enterprise, Inc
Henning, Elma & Rummel, Merle
The Toney Family History, 1979, Gateway Press
U. S. Census, 1800 - 1830, (Franklin County, Union County, Wayne
County IN., Preble County, OH)
Correspondence with Gertrude Mann, Historian, Franklin County,
Virginia, covering a number of years.
#The traditional of the Stonelick Church formation in 1795 by Elder David Stouder would tend to contradict this, but the author, as pastor of that church, has been unable to identify this person, and tends to agree with Don Bowman, that David Stouder was one of the Kentucky preachers, who came across the river to preach to the Millers and Bowmans at Obannon/Stonelick in those early days.
#Dorothy Womack, a Lybrook researcher in North Carolina, can find no records of this Philip Lybrook, Sr. and claims that the younger Philip Lybrook, who married Anna Miller and moved to the Four Mile, is the son of Baltzar Lybrook. Local Indiana tradition has named Philip Sr as father of our Philip. A chart made out from the information gathered by Martha Lybrook Allen, with descendents of Virginia's John Lybrook, do not include the same siblings for younger Philip as are listed as children of Baltzar, and gives Philip Jr's father as Philip Sr. Another paper from the descendents of Henry Lybrook says that 2 brothers (Henry and Philip) came out together. Henry is a son of Baltzer. Mrs Womack also questions the marriage certificate of Barbara Lybrook to Jacob Miller.
IV. The Settlement on the Four Mile
The river starts far to the south in the high meadowed valleys in the mountains in North Carolina. This New River flows northward, dropping down into the Great Valley of Virginia and becoming a major river there. Across the ridge and flowing south are the Clinch and Holstein Rivers into Tennessee, but the New River flows north. Then it turns west and plunges through the Appalacian Mountain Ranges. On the north, up the Valley, the Roanoke flows east and cuts through the Blue Ridge, and farther up the Valley, the Shenanadoah heads north on its flow to the Potomac at Harpers Ferry.
The New River cuts a dashing swath through the heart of the mountains. Other rivers come into it from the north and the south. There is the East River which came in from the south, first beyond the ridges. It was here that John Toney built his first brick house west of the mountains. Then from the north, in the same valley, comes the Greenbriar River. Do you know what Greenbriars are? It is a tough briary green woods vine, just like its name. This river comes down from the wooded mountains. William Toney, John's brother, lived here at first. Peterstown is just beyond. At New River Gorge, is a deep cut with rapid waters and beautiful views.
At Lenard Morris' Fort the river is deep enough and wide enough that it changes, no longer so rough and cruel. It becomes a river with its own valley. Here the Gauley River runs into it, out of the northern ridges and hills. The name changes now to the Kanawha. Parallel to it to the south, and then joining it is the Coal River. There is a major ridge between.
Finally, the River joins the Great Ohio. Here on the banks above both rivers was fought the great battle between the Virginia frontiersmen and the Shawnee Indians under Chief Cornstalk. The Battle of Point Pleasant was a long and fierce battle, the Virginians won, if anyone did. The Indians did not make large raids through the mountains any longer.
Along the Kanawha/New River ran the Shawnee War Path, mostly on the south side, sometimes close to the river, sometimes distant, due to land features. Now the path was clear and safe for settlement. Intrepid settlers had already come along it. One such terminus was Len Morris, who had built the fortified log cabin on the south bank below the Gauley River (nearly across from Charleston, WVA.). In later days it became a place where the migrants could build a flatboat and go down to the Ohio and on to Cincinnati.
What is a flatboat? It is whatever an migrant could put together. Some were big and strong and maybe carried several families. Some were so small they were barely put together. Even if it was his best it might prove not adequate for the trip ahead. It was a flat bottom boat, mostly rectangular in shape, with high sides and possibly a flat roofed cabin toward the back. A sweep formed the rudder to the rear and one of the men walked the roof and used the sweep to guide the flatboat as it traveled down the river. The flatboat carried the horses and wagons, all the family's goods as it traveled to the new lands to the west.
Maybe the river was easier than to go overland, but it was not all safe. There were dead-heads: fallen trees, tops gone, hung up in the river that sometimes were totally underwater, but the upstream end would sometimes raise up pushed by the current till it would breach the surface and punch a hole in the coming boat. In low water there were rocks and even rapids in the river which had to be navigated correctly. There were the falls at Louisville, thats why most settlers didn't go beyond there. Some stopped at Maysville on the Kentucky shore, many stopped at Cincinnati in Ohio Territory or even at Louisville above the falls. And always there were the Indians.
The migration of the whiteman was invasion of Indian country. White man drove off the game animals. He destroyed the forest. He destroyed the basis of Indian customs and life. He claimed a small section of the land, of the forest, even though the Indian knew that the land belonged to all people. There was conflict between the Indian and most white men. As the flatboat came down the river, a constant watch was kept for trouble ashore. But the flatboat tied up to the shore at night, it was too dangerous to travel in the dark, and too, the family liked to stretch its legs after the hard day's work. A cooked meal tasted good, and fresh meat added to family provisions. But the flatboat was seen and the Indian knew they stopped. Sometimes it was the daring of youth, the challenge of the novice warrior, with rewards in horses and firearms, and even older warriors could go for that. Sometimes it was from the pain in his heart, from a settler attack which had killed his own women and innocent children. Sometimes it was anger at this enemy invader. A captive might be used to lure the flatboat close for attack and capture. An arrow might fall from the forest cover to stick in the wood or even injure or kill man or animal. Sometimes there would be a sneak attack with warriors suddenly coming over the sides of the boat, especially if it were too near the shore. But these were hazards of the trip, known, faced and normally avoided or overcome. And many arrived at Cincinnati.
The original Four Mile families seem to have come by flatboat to Cincinnati where they obtained their tract of land at the land office. The first were in the Ohio lands. Finally the Indiana lands were surveyed in 1803, years following the Greenville treaty. Ohio became a state and the state line ran directly north from the mouth of the Great Miami River. This took it right through the Little Four Mile. This land between the Ohio line and the Treaty line was called the Gore. The Cox and Gaar families had gone up from Fort Hamilton to the Whitewater River along the Indian Path the year of the survey, Daniel Fiant the year before that, so it was a blazed trail and the settlers to the Four Mile knew of it and many followed. Matthew and Thomas Hueston had already taken much land in the Four Mile Valley. Peter Ridenour had his homestead on the Little Four Mile, just above the trading post on the Indian Path, originally it was called Ridenour Creek, even though he left because there were just too many Indians. Peter was from the Miller area of Maryland, the Hustons of Franklin County seem to be cousins of Matthew and Thomas, there were contacts between Virginia and the Four Mile. John Miller and Joseph Kingery were over at Dayton, just over on the Great Miami River.
There was also a land route, and many families followed it. It too started west on the Shawnee War Path along the New River. But these settlers followed the War Path on down the Kanawha. Cannon had been taken to Point Pleasant, so the path was widened to wagon width. From the 1820 Quaker Way Bill, we have the stopping places and distances from North Carolina through the New River Gorge and Shawnee War Path, acrossed Ohio (see Appendix 6). The trace began in Guileford County, North Carolina. It crossed the Blue Ridge at Wards Gap and would have come on to John Toney's house at Glenlyn, in Giles County, VA. His brick house was just north of the Post Office on US 460 there, just south of the New River. It was on a small hill (the house, and even the hill, was removed in widening the highway). In West Virginia, the Quaker Trace certainly followed the Shawnee War Path through these mountains. Where it went in relation to the New River Gorge has not been traced or is unknown to this author. The route probably followed State Road 61 to Len Morris' Fort at Marmet, southeast of Charleston. From there the trace probably followed near State Roads 2 and 17 along the southern banks of the Kanawha to the Ohio River.
The Ohio was crossed just below the old battlefield. The town of Gallipolis grew up acrossed the River. General Lewis crossed there with his army when invading the Shawnee country and the settlers followed his route northwest. General Lewis stopped before he arrived at the Shawnee town of Chillicothe on the Scioto River. The settlers crossed the river below the town and went up the west bank of the Scioto to Paint Creek, which swung its broad valley west before it angled northward. The Zane Trace came into Chillicothe from Ft. Henry (Wheeling) via Zanesville on the Muskegon. It too followed the Paint Creek west, but in Highland County where Paint Creek swung northward, the Trace followed a valley route southward into Adams County and on to Maysville on the Ohio River in Kentucky. The Four Mile settlers and the North Carolina Quakers followed the Paint Creek, past the ancient Indian hilltop forts and the mounds, to Lee's Cabin, where they struck on north of westward. They went through Wilmington, crossed the Little Miami River at Waynesboro and the Great Miami River at Franklin just above Middletown, then through Germantown and Gratis on the Twin Creek, to Eaton and Richmond. Along this route are Quaker churches and records of Dunker churches and communities. Early Census Records give similar family names here as those of the Four Mile community. Most of this route is now Ohio State Highways: US 35 from Gallipolis to Jackson to Chillicothe. US 50 west to OH 753, to OH 771 in Highland County. It seems to follow country roads from Leesburg to Wilmington, then takes OH 73 through Waynesboro to Franklin; OH 123 to Germantown; OH 725 to Gratis and for the Four Mile settlers west to Camden and to the State Line. For the Quakers to Richmond and the Dunkers of Preble County, OH 122 goes on to Eaton and US 35 on to Richmond, IN.
We don't have statements why these families moved west. There are several well known reasons, some or all of them probably played their part. We know the Toneys went into the mountains after Ginseng soon after the Revolution ended. A summer's dig of 'sang would buy a farm in settled Virginia, but families were large and land was about taken, after the rich Aristocracy and their huge grants, the remaining land was mostly filled by settlers coming up the rivers from the Piedmont, or settlers coming down the Valley, down the Carolina Road. Settlement had already begun in the west. Even the famous Daniel Boone was living on the Kanawha, having lost his Kentucky lands. The Ohio River was becoming a major highway to the Kaintuck and the Kanawha was one feeder to it. People weren't just staying in Kentucky. The armies against the Indians told of wonderful lands north, along the Scioto and Miami Rivers. Settlers were going that direction.
John Miller and a Gingrich, certainly Joseph Kingery, were on the Great Miami in 1800 or before. Elder Jacob Miller began selling his lands in 1800 and by 1802 he moved to the new country. Others came with him, including his widowed daughter, Mary Darst and her strapping sons. Others followed to the Miami and Twin Creek from Franklin County as the word returned. But there were cheaper lands on west. After the survey of 1803 in Indian Territory, land sold for $2.00 an acre in the Cincinnati Land Office. It was $80.00 down and $80.00 a year. Originally a person had to purchase a full section of land or 640 acres, later the amount was reduced, first to a half section, then to a quarter section with the price at $1.25 per acre. Elder Jacob Miller settled on the Great Miami a little southwest of Dayton: a Dayton that was then just a new town of a couple houses and a store. But his children turned their eyes on west, to Indiana Territory, to the Four Mile.
The first to venture into the Four Mile area was Matthew Hueston. He was a wagoneer under General Anthony Wayne, transporting between Fort Hamilton and Fort Greenville. When the conflict was finished, he returned to the Four Mile valley that had attracted his admiration as he had traveled it. Matthew and his brother, Thomas, became involved in the local area and took up thousands of acres of Butler County land on the Four Mile and adjacent areas. Thomas managed the property and built his own house, a two story log building, later sided, near the Sugar Camp in Hueston Woods State Park. The actual site is now inundated by Acton Lake. The Park is named for them and is an preserved timbered site of the Hueston family land.
While proof of kinship is missing, the use of common given names by both families shows probable close relationship between this Hueston family and another Huston family directly involved in the Virginia Colony of the Four Mile settlement. Thomas Huston of Franklin County, VA. had moved there from Bedford County, PA. This is adjacent to the gap at Mercersburg, in Franklin County, PA. where William Hueston, father of Matthew and Thomas, was from. Thomas Sr. had three sons: James, Samuel and Thomas Jr. who came to this area. James and Samuel took a whole section of land (a square mile) between them in 1803 and settled in the corner of Preble County (just northwest of what later became the town of College Corner). Previous to this they lived in log cabins, the remains of one is recorded to have been on the golf course near Brown's Road, to the south of the Park.
At about the same time Joseph Kingery, who had married Eve Ritter, the widowed daughter of Elder Jacob Miller, settled on the next adjacent property to the east. His land faced the Little Four Mile on its north. The Kingery Cemetary is on the banks of the Four Mile in the corner of his land. An old road passed south of the Cemetary, acrossed his land and past Peter Ridenour's mill to the trading post on the Indian Road. (Now the Park Entrance from College Corner.) He had been instrumental in bringing Elder Jacob to Dayton in 1802, now he was a contributor to bringing the family to the Four Mile. While he remained on his Preble County land, he was a speculator like others and obtained lands in Indiana Territory. One such became the residence of his daughter, who married Henry Eikenberry, then her daughter, who married a Witter. It is about 2 miles north of College Corner, on Nine Mile Road. Joseph and wife are buried on his old farm, in the Kingery Cemetary. James and Samuel Huston both died the same day and are buried there also.
With the arrival of Joseph Kingery to the Four Mile, others of the Miller and Kingery children awaited the opening of land in the Indiana Territory. The survey of the land began in 1803. THe area to be open for settlement was that land between the Greenville Treaty Line and the new Ohio State Line. In this area the Greenville Treaty Line ran through the bottomlands of the Whitewater River which is several miles away. The Gore was opened in 1805 and Potter John Miller took a half section of land on the State Line in Indiana. His land ran 1 mile north and south and 1/2 mile west from the state line. Indian Creek comes in from the west on the lower end of his property and curves south along the state line. Whistle Creek starts from springs in Ohio, but quickly crosses to Indiana below College Corner and runs the length of Potter John's property, emptying into Indian Creek. "Potter" John Miller is so named from pottery and bricks made from clay he found at a bend in Indian Creek on his land, and a kiln he ran there. The site of an old well on the headland in the bend probably indicates the location of his log cabin. In 1815, he built a two story brick house on the west bank above Whistle Creek, on the north end of his land. His nephew, Samuel, son of Tobias, was the architect of the house. The house stands at the crossroads about 1 mile south of College Corner. It has been painted white and a room was built above the front porch nearly a century ago, to give outside air for a daughter in the house who had consumption (tuberculosis). Potter John sold his property in 1823 and moved with his children to new lands in Parke County, IN. He returned to the home of his son, Daniel, before he and Phoebe died (1850, 1848 respectively). If son, Abraham, took over the home farm when he married his cousin, Susannah Lybrook, he soon sold it and moved some westward into Franklin County. George Wilson, who married Nancy Ridenour, inherited the Potter John Miller house from his father, Josiah, who was the purchaser.
The next year, 1806, saw an influx of neighbors and kin from Virginia. Joseph's father, Jacob Kingery Sr., came with his family of married sons and daughters. Jacob Sr. lived west of College Corner, near the Keffer Cemetary, or southeast of Cottage Grove (none of which were in existance then). His son Christian owned what is now W. College Corner, IN. He possibly was married to a Jenny Abshire, but if so, she and 2 daughters died early, likely in the 1821 Cholera Epidemic. Martin Kingery lived north of College Corner along the Four Mile Creek. Jacob Kingery Jr. married Barbara Lybrook and they lived in the Upper Four Mile area, on land just southwest of the present church. Eva Kingery and her husband, William Brown, actually took their land in December of 1805, midway beween the Upper and Lower areas on Four Mile Creek. Except for Joseph, 6 of the sons of Jacob Kingery Sr. took their land on Four Mile Creek in 1806 and likely all came out as one group. One daughter, Mary who married Richard Sumpter, settled on the Quaker Trace near Gallipolis in Ohio, indicating the possibility that this family group came out on the land route, by wagon.
That year, 1806, saw Philip Lybrook, husband of Anna Miller, come to the Four Mile with his eldest two sons, John and Jacob. Records say they took their land on the Upper Four Mile, cleared and planted a field of corn, then Philip returned to Virginia for the rest of the family while the two boys tended the fields and finished a log cabin for the winter and the coming families. Maria Hart, daughter of Jacob, identifies each of the children and where they lived when they arrived. They all lived close around the parental farm, some in Ohio and one daughter, Nancy, as far as 2 miles west, on the headwaters of Hanna's Creek. Philip's land lay on the State Line. John returned to Virginia and married his sweetheart, Fanny Toney. He brought her mother back with him and settled just west of his father. Thus he began the migration of the Toneys to the Four Mile.
Another family group to come that year were the Witters. Christopher Witter took the property on the Four Mile, where the Indian Road forded the Creek. The Witter Cemetary is just above that crossing. His son John, wife Anna Moyer, lived just north; and daughter, Elizabeth, with her husband, John Moyer, just west. John Moyer was the first elected into the ministry of the Four Mile German Baptist Church (the Dunker official name). He became an Elder here before he moved west. Other sons and their families took lands south of the father, on down to the Kingery lands.
A couple of the Darst boys were interested in Indiana land and seemed to have moved here at least temporarily after their mother moved to Dayton but they returned to the Dayton area, married and settled down there. At least one of Eva Ritter Kingery's sons took land on the Four Mile and lived here until he moved north.
In 1809 Tobias Miller, brother of Potter John, came to the Indian Creek area. He is said to have arrived with Col. John Miller and James Webster. He settled west of where Potter John built his brick house, on Indian Creek where he soon established a sawmill and grist mill. Tobias was married to a half-sister of Phoebe, Potter John's wife, and of Isabella, wife of William Crawford. He built a large brick house above the Indian Creek on his land in the 1830's. It was his son, Samuel, who portrayed such a variety of genius in building and construction, first Potter John's house, then in the College at Oxford (now Miami University) and in the bridge construction at Hamilton, then he and his brother James were first settlers and trustees of Chicago, but after his wife died there, he went to Michigan City, built the historic Light House there and was a grain trader on the lakes. Coming with Tobias was Col. John Miller, to identify him separately from Potter John. He was an orphan born at Hagarstown, MD., very likely a cousin of Potter John and Tobias. He settled just south of Potter John and William Crawford on Pleasant Run, a tributary of Indian Creek just above the Franklin County line. Col. John received that name because of his service during the War of 1812 where he helped hold a fort or fortified cabin in the nearby Franklin County area. Col. John and family were charter members of the Universalist Church there and are buried in the Bake Cemetary on the County line, sometimes called the Universalist Cemetary.
Other brothers settled here. Daniel Miller lived in the Lower Four Mile west of John Moyer. He also was elected a first minister in the church. Abraham Miller first lived in Preble County, between Joseph Kingery and Peter Ridenour. He brought the first blacksmith to the area. He then moved west of Tobias, south of Keffer Cemetary, possibly near Bath in Franklin County. Aaron and David Miller were founding ministers of the Nettle Creek Church at Hagerstown, IN. then led a move to South Bend IN area. Records indicate that they went from Montgomery County, OH. to Hagerstown, but Aaron may have come to the Four Mile first, even if only for a short time, since he seems to have owned land here. Also, records show that a son was born to him in Indiana, a later son born in Ohio, both previous to the move from Dayton to Hagerstown.
This large migration from Franklin County, VA. brought others. After Susannah Toney came with John Lybrook, many of her brothers and sisters came with their families. She died in the 1821 Cholera Epidemic, as did her brother, Edmund. His family moved on to kin in southern Indiana, and some of his children on to Missouri and Oregon. (see Appendix II, Oregon Newspaper Article) Another sister, Hannah, and husband, Matthew Peters, both died in Preble Co. during the 1832 Cholera Epidemic, and their family has moved up into Randolph Co IN. Avirilla, Evy, came to Preble County, but returned to Kanawha County, (W)VA, (now Boone Co.), when her elder son, Squire Thompson, moved on to Michigan in 1823. Carey Toney brought his family from those same Virginia mountains to lands on the Preble County side. Most of his family has remained local. Jesse Toney came to Preble County, but left with the migration to NW Indiana in the 1830's.
William Moss, eldest son of Edmund Moss, was married to Betsy Lybrook. William moved to the Upper Four Mile and became a prominent Dunker Elder and Circuit Preacher to the settlers along the Wabash River in west central Indiana. His father and family settled on the Four Mile, probably near by, except for Edmund Jr. who married Nancy Kingery and lived near her parents on the Lower Four Mile in Preble County.
The migration to the Four Mile was an extension of a larger migration to this section of Ohio, to the Miami River valley in Montgomery County, west of Dayton, and west of that, to the Twin Creek in Preble County. The Dunker Families on the Four Mile were mostly a part of these larger families that moved from the east to this area. Elder Jacob Miller settled on the Great Miami River, but his children mostly came to the Four Mile. Peter Eikenberry Jr., and his brother Henry, settled near Gratis in Preble County, several of the children of both married into the Four Mile community and Peter's, at least, lived here. Peter, himself, seems to have early owned land on the Indian Road just before it crossed the Ohio State Line, and his son, Peter, lived on it. Daniel Brower was one of several Browers who came west from Virginia. Daniel settled on the State Line in Ohio, between the Lybrooks and the Toneys. Other Browers, brothers and cousins, settled in Preble County, in Twin Valley, and over in Montgomery County in the Miami River Valley. David Rinehart was one of several brothers and cousins who came to the Twin Valley near Gratis, then he came over to the Four Mile and took land just south of the Toneys, in Ohio. The Rineharts were a Pennsylvania family. Some of them moved south into Maryland and Virginia. The Landis families were Pennsylvania Dunkers who moved to Virginia. Peter Eikenberry's wife was a Landis, two of her brothers took land on the Upper Four Mile. David Landis died in 1815. His brother, Daniel Landis, seems to have his estate probated at the same time, so also must have died then. One of David's daughters was married to Daniel Sheidler. Daniel Miller was married to Elizabeth Shideler, his sister. Their brother, Lewis Shideler bought the David Landis estate, although he soon sold it and moved to the new town of College Corner, where he built the first addition. The Shideler family had moved west in Pennsylvania to Washington County before several members came to Preble County. Daniel Hart moved up from North Carolina, Wilkes County, to the Four Mile. He bought land from Philip Lybrook and lived on the State Line. We do not know his connection to Elder John Hart of Twin Creek, who had come out from Virginia and who helped found the Four Mile Church.
The Virginia Colony on the Four Mile was mostly Dunker or kin of those connected to the Dunker Church. It was essentially a migration from Franklin County, VA. over a period of years. Most of the families came between 1806 and 1812. Other families continued to come for some years following. Kin and acquaintances from North Carolina and on back into Maryland and Pennsylvania also headed to this community on the Four Mile, and became part of it. Soon some began a movement on to the new lands opening up across Indiana and on to other states, but there were those who remained as the core of the community and the Four Mile Church.
History and Geography of Union County, IN., 1884, Beers and Co
History of Preble County, Ohio, 1881, H Z Williams and Bro.
History of the Church of the Brethren in Indiana, 1917, Brethren Press
U. S. Census, 1820 - 1860 (Union County, IN; Preble County, OH)
various wills and land titles.
V. The Frontier
There were probably as many reasons for moving to the new frontier as there were people who came. A very common reason was financial. Land in settled Virginia cost. There was only so much land, and families were large. One son could inherit the home place, frequently it was the youngest, who then had the responsibility of the parents. Sometimes enough land would be divided between a couple sons. Some daughters might marry a young man who would similarly qualify, or a son to a young woman who was heir to her father, and thus remain locally. There was always the man who didn't make it and would go west to try again. His land could be obtained for a reasonable price for some few local sons. But what could the rest do? Some would die in childhood, God forbid, or even youth. An occasional son would run off on his own, to sea, or went west, and never be heard from again, whatever the reason: Indians, murdered, the far mountain trappers, lost at sea in storms, or just settle down in some distant community and never send word home. Some daughters would never marry. But what about the rest? To these the open frontier was a blessing, no matter what the work and suffering. In many instances one son would be left the home place and all the rest of the family "went west". Land was cheap in cost, it just took hard work. A person could get a good start with his own labor.
For the Dunkers in Virginia there was another reason. They had fled Pennsylvania to escape the pressures of the War against England. Now the conflict was rising again. But even more distressing to these peace-loving people was the conflict rising over the ownership of their fellow man. Virginia had slavery. True, the poorer people seldom afforded such, but the acceptance was there, even back at the edge of the mountains in Franklin County. The Dunkers could not accept the idea of slavery. They looked for a place to go where they could live like they felt life should be lived, and the North West Frontier beckoned. Tobias Miller inherited a group of slaves when his father-in-law died, he freed them, bankrupting himself, and came west to this new good farmland. They were farmers, at least by now, good farmers and those lands on the frontier were fertile, so very, very fertile: topsoil two feet deep. Those lands gladdened the heart of a good farmer.
So they came to the Four Mile, for those and other reasons. They came alone and with others, till many came, including many kin and neighbors, for many hands make light work and there was much work to do. They came in wagons, Conestoga wagons, pulled by yokes of oxen and teams of horses, four horse teams. Peter Ridenour came in first, from Maryland, with a pack horse train. They brought an ax and a plow and a scythe, at bare minimum, but many brought more and enough. The Lybrooks brought cherry bedsteads and cherry cupboard cabinets that are still in the family. They weren't rich, but they had what they needed and it was good. Some came with little, but they helped each other to make do. Martin Witter loaned Daniel Brower a bred heifer, and when she had her calf, it was his to keep, to start up his own herd.
The Lybrooks came to a dense forest country. It is called a climax forest, mostly Beech and Maple, with Oaks, Hickory, Tulip and even some Walnut. They were huge trees covering the sky. Trunks were often 4 or 5 feet through, and the limbs intertwined high overhead, so one walked in the twilight underneath. It was fairly open beneath the tall trees. The sun was virtually shut out and little underbrush grew, except in openings where one of the forest giants had finally fallen. The accumulated leaves formed a thick humus as they decayed and the resulting soil was fertile and rich, and wet. The streams ran full, deeper then they are now, and steady, constant water to mill corn or flour. A miasma lay common over these wet lands, they called it "chills and fever", we call it malaria. The white flowering ageratium (white snake root)* grew prolifically in this moist soil, and cattle ate it, but children and even adults suffered from drinking the milk, they called it "Milk Fever", many died. The ageratium is cousin to the deadly nightshade and the ground cherry.
First, clear the ground. Small trees were cut down and trimmed out. They made brush piles out of the trimmed out tops and brush, these were to be burned come winter. They usually were piled around the too large trees, or at the edge of the field to be planted. Large trees were girdled, the bark cut through, in a ring around the trunk so the tree would die standing upright, for the sap runs up just below the bark layer. They were too big to cut down and too big to use. The tops died, and the sun touched the ground through the dead branches. The settler broke the soil for the first time, plowing around the stumps and standing trunks, planting his hills of corn by hand and hoe, and adding squash or pumpkin and potatoes to produce food for next winter. It was work, hard work, tearing up a man's insides as the plow hooked on roots, jerked the team to a stop, and slammed the plow handles against a man's ribs. Then it took an ax to cut the root at the stump, and maybe the yoke of oxen to get it pulled out of the ground and over to the growing pile of brush. Maybe the first winter, maybe not till the second, after the majestic trees were thoroughly dead and after the crops were all harvested and away, then the brush, the dead tops of the smaller trees were piled around the trunks of the girdled trees and set on fire. It was called "niggering". Fire would do what a man could not take time to do. Fire brought the great trees down and fire cleaned them up. The ashes were plowed back into the soil, it was richer still. The first year a man might clear 5 or 10 or maybe even 20 acres, maybe half of that would be plowed and planted. It made a scanty crop to supply food for a family that first winter, and families were large, but times were hard for everyone.
The first cabin was built, it was all a man could do, even with help. The longest maneuverable log would be 20 feet. That was the long side of the cabin. The short side would depend on how much space he needed, how big a family he had. The height was enough to stand, and enough more to make a loft for the children. Those small trees made the cabin logs. They were a foot, to one and one-half feet thick. A man would square them off with an adze. The Yellow Popular or Tulip Tree was naturally straight and would lay tight together with only a minimum of chinking. They were thick enough to give decent protection against the cold and the chinking kept the winds out. The ends were cut to overlap with special angle cuts, so they would lock together and hold fast. The angles were shaped so water would drain out and not rot the wood. Clay and flat stone built the chimney and a fireplace in one end of the cabin. The roof was big clap-board shingles, rived out of oak or ash. They were 4 foot long, six inches wide or more, and one inch thick. They were held down with cross poles. They kept out most of the rain, partly because the roof sloped enough so the water ran off quickly. In time they warped badly and let in considerable air, but at first they were reasonably tighter.
The actual construction was a neighborly thing that would take three or four days. It took several men together to cut the logs and roll them to the cabin site. Or a man with grown sons might already have the logs cut and adzed square. The logs were raised into place with hand spikes and skid poles. The higher it went the more work it took, and accidents did happen. The gables were made of logs that the ends were cut into a bevel to fit the roof slope, each shorter than the one below it. Several cross poles, the length of the building, held the gables in place and also served as a type of rafter to support the clapboard shingles. If the family were large, the log walls were raised higher, a loft gave sleeping space to the children, especially the boys. The picture of William Moss' cabin shows an outside ladder to the loft, the Templeton Cabin at Liberty has an inside stairway to the loft or upstairs. The door and windows would be cut out of the logs after the cabin was up. A hole would be augered through the logs and the opening sawed out. Hewed lumber three or four inches thick, was fastened by wood pins to the opening in the cabin logs to make a framed doorway or window. Large clapboards would be pegged to split cross poles to make a door. It would swing on a hinge made of a pointed pole, with corresponding holes augered into the logs top and bottom. A latch bar on the inside closed it shut, but the latch-thong was allowed to hang outside through a hole in the door during the day so the latch could be raised and the door opened. At night it would be drawn inside, to prohibit entry by unwanted guests. This is the basis of the saying, "the latch string is always out!" Inside above the doorway hung the rifle, on two wood hooks, or a deer's antler rack. Most families could afford to bring glass panes out with them from the east, carefully packed, enough for maybe 3 small four-paned windows. Heavy wooden shutters, made of clapboards, like the doors, would protect the glass from night or storm damage. The floor might originally be tamped clay, covered with white sand, but a puncheon floor of split logs smoothed off was a quick improvement. Much of the furniture would be homemade. An upright post in the floor, connected by poles to two walls at a corner made a bed, or covered made a table. A split log with sticks for legs made a stool or bench, and if a little larger, would make a table.
Once the cabin was built, the settler himself proceeded on property improvements. A shed would shelter his horses or even a cow. Eventually this would be succeeded by a barn. Another shed sheltered the chickens, ducks and geese. The ashes from the fireplace would be gathered into a type of bin, or hopper close to the house where water from the roof could be run into, and through it. A split log made a trough with one end open. Clapboards shaped it into a funnel and covered it. When full, water running through it made lye, and when boiled with bear or hog grease in an iron kettle made a soft soap or lye soap for the frontier. Somewhere close a well would be dug if a spring was not available. Whichever was available, it would be walled up to protect the water from dirt and wild animals, and the children from falling in. An outhouse would be built, since indoor running water was not of that day. A picket fence would protect the garden, and another the chicken yard. A rail fence or snake fence would now close off a field or several. Winter storage could be simply a barrel buried in the ground, covered with straw, to a buried covered cellar, such as the Frontier Farm Museum at Hueston Woods State Park portrays the Doty family when they settled there. With new buildings and improved living, the original frontier cabin was now becoming a settled farm.
For the new settler, wild game provided a major part of the food supply. In the earliest days, the buffalo, or bison, still roamed the country. But the winter of 1800 decimated them and they were only occasionally seen in the succeeding years. Venison, deer meat, was another good source of meat. Again the winter of 1817 trapped the deer, and while it made easy food provision for settlers during that hard year, it removed another reliable food source for future years. Possom, coon, squirrel, wild turkey, pheasant, wild pigeon and ducks were continuing food. Wild turkeys roosted in the beech woods. They were fat from December to February. When scairt by dogs, they would fly into a tree where they were stalked, or they might be shot at roost at daylight. They would run 12 to 15 lbs. Pigeons would roost at night and were hunted by torch and club. They made a tasty meat dish. After 1830, squirrel became the main table meat. From the wild were many edible plants, "greens" and roots that the settler's wife scrounged and even stored for winter. Lambsquarter, Mullin and Cattail Roots, even the lowly nettle were edible and a tasteful changed to winter fare. Some plants gave natural medicines well in advance of medical knowledge. Many a woman had her loft hung roundabout with drying "weeds" like dock, mullein, sage, tansy, fennel, boneset, poke root, mint, catnip, pennyroyal, wormwood, calomel, horehound, plants which stopped a winter cough, or brought down a fever. Some plants were preserved for their flavoring properties. Onion, garlic, mustard, sage and red pepper can season food when salt is run out and nowhere available.
As time passed the garden and farm produced more and more self sufficiency. According to the way it was cooked, corn made johnnycake, cornpone, corn bread and corn fritters. Corn mush was just corn meal cooked in water. When stiff it could be fried, maybe eated with honey or syrup. When hot mush was eated with milk it was called "hasty pudding". Johnnycake was a corn dough baked on a smooth board, corn pone was raised some with yeast and baked in a dutch oven. Corn and beans became succotosh. There was the lye soaked corn, called hominy. Beans just naturally dried themselves if left out in the field. When harvested they could be kept all winter. When the brush pile was burned in early March, cabbage, tobacco and pepper seed were started in the warm ashes, covered against the frost, then transplanted to the garden. Winnigstadt cabbages were for summer use, but Drumhead Cabbage would store for winter buried in the barrel. Boiled cabbage was cooked with fat to give it seasoning. Chopped up cabbage, in the crock, was covered from the flies, and allowed to ferment into saurkraut. Then lard would seal the crock from the air and preserve the food till winter's lean season came. Of course, there was always some to eat now. Potatoes would keep in free air, but usually by February they would give out from rot and wrinkles. Pumpkin and squash could be cut into strips and dried in the loft. Turnips would keep in the barrel, just like potatoes, (but use a different barrel).
The inner bark of the Sassafras root made a good tea, normally used as a spring tonic, it "thinned the blood": Sassyfras tea and 'lassas cookies, a spring treat, that was good for you, it thinned the blood and replaced the iron. The new leaves of Blackberry or Wild Raspberry made a tea that tasted of horehound. Spicewood and the inner bark of the Sycamore made drinks. Blackstrap molasses boiled in water made a man of you. But coffee seems to be something that people must have, even if it is not available. The frontier found many coffees substitutes: bread coffee, crust coffee, meal coffee, potatoe coffee and later, wheat and flour coffee. These were roasted to give a more appropriate flavor. One major drink on the frontier was cider, hard cider. A normal family might use as much as a hundred gallons of hard cider. It was used all year around. A mixture of regular and crab apples made a good hard cider. Realizing that hard cider soon turns to vinegar, the question was how these people had hard cider available all year around. It was discovered that hard cider was a low alcohol fermented apple cider. It was prepared using the same equipments as for the various fruit wines. Peter Ridenour had a distillery at his mill, for whiskey, and it brought results the year of the bad wheat. The early Dunkers accepted the temperate use of alcoholic beverages, they called before council any one who imbibed in excess. Wines and beers were acceptable. Whiskey was marginal, although they did process their corn products into whiskey, as did many of their frontier neighbors. The Methodist Temperance movement of the 1850's brought a major change to the Dunker thought.
Then there were deserts. In the spring, when the maple bush was tapped for syrup, during the cook off, the skimmings, or even a little syrup, would be thrown onto the snow, which the children avidly grabbed for candy. Maple syrup would also be cooked down into a cake of sugar. Honey or maple syrup would make a good custard, or with boiled wheat it made "firmities". Everyone loved to find a "bee tree", even those who suffered most from the bee stings. Apples make good pies, and everyone likes apple pie. No wonder Johnny Appleseed was such an American Hero. He planted apple trees out onto the frontier, where the settlers were not yet come, and there were apple trees bearing fruit when they arrived. Potter John Miller was almost a Johnny Appleseed, he had brought a whole orchard of fruit tree starts with him from Virginia.
The frontier lady brought with her flowers from back home. Hollyhocks, marigolds, verbenias and bachelor buttons bloom around the house. Many a cabin site still retains the white rose bush and red rose bush on either side of the old front door, entirely innocent of the significance from English history and the War of the Roses and the Royal Stuart Family. The trumpet vine or honeysuckle grew on a pole trellis at the door. The morning glory grew so proliferously, that today it is often considered only a weed. The various gourds were grown on vines for their novelty and also for the variety of their use: dippers, bowls, cups, cans, containers of all kinds. Seeds were preserved for next year's planting. You didn't eat your seed crop, no matter how lean the winter became. Seed swapping didn't just happen between the housewife. A good seed corn was prized and traded for share. The weather was closely watched and records kept. The right time to plant was important, to avoid excessive weeding of the crop or particular insect larva as well as to assure proper growin0g temperature. Even the moon and the stars might give the right signs and many read the "almanac" to determine when the time was right.
Money was a problem on the frontier. Most local trade was by barter. Many a doctor or midwife received payment in chickens or a ham. It was normal to consider that it would be 5 years before the farm would yield a surplus. But the land office still wanted paid and there were taxes. While a man might own a quarter, half or even whole section (640 Acres - one mile on a side), most of it was still in forest. A man could only do so much work, and for one man, that usually meant that he had 40 acres that he was tilling. The 40 acres raised all his food, and the extra hay for the cows and horses. Some of his land might be cleared, used as pasture. The rest of his land was woods, still forest. Hogs were allowed to run wild in the woods. Beech mast, acorns and other nuts or seeds, made good food for them and they would root through the woods after mast, seeds and roots. The slop trough was the frontier garbage disposal and fattened the hogs, too. The hog was not as fat as we like today, but a ham is a ham, and bacon is bacon, and while the "wild" hog was a lean hog, the meat was redder and better for a man, even if it did tend to be tough and stringy, and it made lard. The hog could protect itself against the forest preditors, including the wolf but not the bear, better than other domesticated animals like the cow or horse. Hogs were one cash crop on the Four Mile frontier. Herds of hogs, with geese and turkeys, were early driven to Cincinnati/Hamilton where they were cash income that could be exchanged for products not available by local effort. Hog butchering was a late fall activity, since the winter cold would preserve the meat better than any method the frontier provided. Some of the hams might be barreled and shipped by wagon to Cincinnati to ship to New Orleans by flatboat. Venisen hams brought 25 cents and deer skins brought a dollar in Cincinnati in 1820. The deer were stalked at dawn and twilight, or by a bright torch at night, maybe from a boat, called "shining their eyes". They were bled, gutted and hung up, then a pack horse was brought to take them home. Potter John Miller is said to have killed 11 deer one night and gone out the next morning and gotten 7 more. He got his friend and neighbor, William Crawford, to help care for them.
There were predators on the frontier, animals and not the Indians. The rattlesnake and copper head were constant dangers in their respective territories. The wolf was not such a danger to man as to his livestock. Bears ate young pigs. The hunter would loose his dogs, follow and when they chased the bear up a tree he would come for the kill. Bear meat was wild but edible. Bear fat usually made several gallons of grease. The bear skin made a good robe, especially for the children up in the cold loft. The panther, called painter or lion, would follow his prey overhead in the trees. His blood-curdling yowl terrified the young. His cry sounded like a baby or small child. His pelt made a glorious robe or rug. The coon (raccoon) raided the corn and could not be endured. He still is hunted at night by "coondogs". His meat is edible but fatty, and his skin brought 50 cents in frontier days.
"Man works from sun to sun, Woman's work is never done". The man and boys on the frontier had plenty of work to do. There were the crops to plant and harvest. There were endless weeds that must be hoed out. The horses and cattle need tending morning and night. Fences need built or repaired, new buildings built, or roofs tightened up. The forest provided lumber and firewood, work normally done in the wintertime so the snow could help skid the timbers out. In season there were special jobs, like driving the herd of hogs to market. Man's work started as soon as it was light enough to see, and went till it was too dark to be able to see to do the work. Then the men came home. But for the women and girls, work started even earlier, food was ready before it was light outdoors, so the men could eat before they left to work. Food was prepared and ready for them to carry with them to eat during the day. While the men were out working, the woman had endless chores to do. Feed the chickens, hoe the garden, cook dinner for those at home, get supper ready for when the men returned home. Then there was flax and wool to ready for the spinning wheel to make thread, then for the loom to make cloth. The cloth made shirts and pants for the men, and dresses and shawls for the women. There were underclothes to make, and endless socks to knit. Deer hide or bear skins could make good robes or rugs, or even jackets and coats, but someone had to do it. Wood ashes had to be carried outdoors, even if there wasn't a ash rack. And lye had to be cooked into the lard to make soap. Apples needed to be peeled and cored before they could be squeezed for cider, or cooked into apple butter. After the harvest there was still the preservation of the food. And mostly it devolved on the woman. As if this wasn't enough, there always seemed to be another baby. Yes, the younger girls could watch him (or her) during the day. Feeding time was another matter, that invariably was something only mother could handle. It might be delayed with a pacifier, a "sugar nipple" made of maple sugar wrapped in a piece of cloth and sucked. Those days didn't have throwaway pampers, and a dirty diaper was just exactly that. Even the wash wasn't easy like today. The big iron kettle was heated for boiling water. Lye soap was peeled into the water and the clothes were stirred by a stick and beaten by hand until they got clean. Baby's diapers, yes, but the dresses and shirts and pants for the whole family, every week had its wash day. After wash day was done and the clothes were dry, came ironing day. Another day was cooking day, bread for the week. By night all the women were tired, but they still weren't done. The men came home, expecting supper to be ready, and it was, nourishing food even if not fancy. Then after the meal there were still dishes
to clean up. Even after the family was in bed, the baby always demanded attention, and the 2 and 3 year olds weren't that big yet. Big sister really helped, but mother had it all. The best frontier families had large families, with boys to help on the farm, and girls to help in the house. Yes, the cabin was only 20 feet long and maybe 15 feet wide, but there easily were 12 or 16 children in it. Elder Baltzer Lybrook died in the Cholera Epidemic, hardly middle aged, but he was worked to death, because he seems to have had 8 daughters and no sons. But many was the home that had the second or even third wife. "Man works from sun to sun, but woman's work is never done."
The frontier life was a time of hard work that sometimes never seemed to show much result. It seemed like the work never stopped. Everyone worked hard, for the whole week. Even the nearest neighbor was seldom seen, because he was working also. There were times that work could be shared and that made it seem easier, with the companionship of another person. All the neighbors got together for a house raising, or a barn raising. The women brought food, and prepared it all together. The girls tended the little children, but they shared their time and it was not at all like at home. The young boys found plenty of mischief to get into, and even a fistfight or two to prove the pecking order. The men had work, no easier than at home, but not alone.
Every week had the Sabboth Day. That was "go to meeting day". No work was done, except what couldn't be not done. Cows had to be milked and the livestock fed, but there was no cooking on the Sabboth, it was already done the day before. The horses were harnessed to the spring wagon or surrey. Everyone was in their "go to meeting clothes" whether extra, or just clean. Food was packed in a hamper or basket. There was a meeting, at one house or another, according to whose time it was and everyone was there. Maybe it was two hours away, clear up at Lybrooks or clear down at Potter Johns. Maybe Brother John Moyer would preach, or Brother Daniel Miller, or Brother William Moss, or Brother Baltzer Lybrook, or maybe three or all four if the Lord led them. Maybe Elder Jacob Miller had come over from Bear Creek in Ohio, that was a special time, even if he wasn't YOUR grandpa or great grandpa. Maybe it would be Elder John Hart from the Twin Creek from the other side of Preble County. Some were better than others, and those times the crowd might be quite large. If too many came it might move outdoors, to the barn, or even under a tree. The young boys usually managed to slip out of sight, and many a young man, to his parents dismay, gathered with the others outside the door. They could see the girls inside, and the girls were well aware of being observed. They knew better than to make much noise, but sometimes a bottle got passed around, and they knew that some of those sermons were directed at their sinning souls. After the service was over, then the food was put out. It would be late by then, well into the afternoon. Once grace was said, the little children were served first, then the ministers, then the men, then it was whoevers turn. Usually the women waited to last, maybe because someone had to feed the little children, or just because someone had to be last. There would always be some fellow off sparkin' some particular girl, and some parent always managed to keep an eye on a daughter, just so they didn't get too far off by themselves. It was still a time of fellowship and good will, and gossip and getting the latest news. If one wasn't kin to most of the people there, you were still kin of kin. Go to meeting Sunday was a big event to the frontier Four Mile Community. It was even more grand than politics.
Maybe that was because politics was only for the men. The women didn't involve themselves in dirty politics. They had plenty to say about the events and people. but that was at home, to their man. Then he had to go to the polls or to a political rally. Maybe a younger son, or several would tag along with dad. Some young men would strike off on their own, but only after the chores were done for the day. But the Dunkers even then, did not involve themselves too much with electioneering and all that went with it. America in that day was very close to its beginning. The election of a neighbor to office was a very intense action, one due considerable deliberation and consideration comparing him to the capabilities of his opponent. Ones own choice then became a matter for one to champion. America was a representative democracy. There was no such thing as direct election. The election was for your representative, who then carried your vote to the state level. There he voted for the national candidates. You listened to his statements to determine if that were your own opinion, if his party representations were what you wanted. Then you voted for him. You watched his vote and you sure enough let him know if he was not representing what you desired. Read the letter in the appendix from Benjamin Miller to his brother-in- law, William Miller of South Bend, who was a member of the state legislature. Benjamin expresses very strongly his opinion about a candidate, because he knows here is someone who will listen to what he wants and can do something about it. There was much in electioneering that was counter to the Christian beliefs of the Dunkers. Liquor was always present, with the coarse language and bullish aggressiveness that can accompany it. As differing opinions were strongly expressed, the aggressiveness would invariably result in fighting. Always some would end up in enemy camps and the disruption could last a lifetime.
Many were still living who had fought in the Revolution, Carey Toney was one of these on the Four Mile. They carried the fervor of their new country to this new land. It was very personal to them, and as a result to those about them. The Fourth of July was their celebration. It was a gala affair, the biggest event of the year. There was a hog and maybe a couple deer roasting on spits over the fires. Families brought in covered dishes and their own utensils, food was on an open table. There were shooting matches, for a turkey, maybe even for a ham. There were tomahawk throwing contests, Knife throwing contests, and sometimes even an archery shooting contest. Some of the watching Indians could be encouraged to show their skill, if it be better than the wild frontiersman. The Declaration of Independence would be read. There were speeches by important people, and by those old veterans who had "fought there". Toasts were drunk to the nation, and those popular as leaders past and current. There was liquor passed around, and it didn't take liquid refreshment to make one want to fire one's gun in the air to add to the glee of celebration. Typically, a peddler would be present to show his wares, and sell his goods. The young boys went crazy running from one event to another as a sudden roar attracted their attention from what was currently being watched, the girls weren't far behind, they were just a little more demure and trying to quell their excitement to act like young ladies (little girls didn't even care). For many of the older Dunkers of the Four Mile, the Fourth brought only remembrances of hurt and persecution, it was not their celebration. The new county seat of Liberty, and Boston, to the north, held the gathering of area celebrants.
The Old Indian Road was the first pathway into the Four Mile community. It was really only an Indian footpath, used so frequently for many years, that it was trodden bare. The ford over the Whitewater River was originally a buffalo trace (bison), trodden down till the muck in the river bottom was a solid layer.
Many of the ongoing portions of the paths were similarly game trails that the Indians had followed and connected together. The Gaars and the Coxs had followed the path to the Whitewater, they had blazed the trees, cutting bark off so bare white inner wood showed boldly. As time passed the blazed path was widened so wagons could travel it. The long curving incline in Hueston Woods leading up to the Campgrounds shows how the path had to be adapted for horse drawn wagons. (No, its not a gulley, or it wasn't originally, but after 175 years of non-use it has washed in some.) Similarly, the ford over the Little Four Mile at the Witter Cemetary has continued in use as a farm lane, but has not changed drastically from the wagon road used originally by the early settlers. While many lived along the Old Indian Road, others did not, so connecting roads were built. One of these was called the Kingery Road, although now it is closed off. It forked off the Old Indian Road in Hueston Woods Park on the south side of Little Four Mile Creek and followed near the creek through Peter Ridenour's land, acrossed that of Abraham Miller and Joseph Kingery and between James and Samuel Huston into Indiana. Parts of it are still used. The west exit from Hueston Woods, at the Park headquarters goes to Oxford and College Corner. This exit is part of the old road, until the modern road turns south and climbs the hill. The residential driveway there going on west is along the original roadway. The park residence at the end of the driveway, is the site of Peter Ridenour's two story log house, and below it, along the Four Mile, is the remains of the millrace used in the later years by the Ridenour Sawmill. Leaving College Corner on the Eaton Pike, you drive on part of the old roadway. At the sharp corner where the Eaton Pike turns north, the dead end road going on east is the Kingery Road, it passes the Kingery Cemetary, to the old Kingery farm where it stops.
Philip Lybrook is recorded as petitioning for a road to the south. An old road that could have been this petitioned one, is traced along the west banks of the Little Four Mile. At some point south of the Lower Four Mile Church site it broke from the creek and went nearly straight to the south, then jogged east to pass between the barn and house of the old William Smith farm and into College Corner on the far west edge. Parallel to this, running almost due south for much of the Lower Four Mile community was another road about a half mile west of the Four Mile Creek Road. Driving on Nine Mile Road this is most obvious in noting that many of the farmsteads to the west are far back on long lanes. Some of them are obvious that the original house likely faced the opposite direction. As previously stated, another old road came over from the "Quaker Trace" coming through Gratis in Preble County. Ohio State Highway 725 becomes Indiana 44 at the state line, the old road by the settlers coming to the Four Mile is likely this same modern road. The "Boston Pike" (Indiana 227/Ohio 177) or the Richmond-Hamilton Pike became an early turnpike, graveled, with toll gates. It probably came into existance about 1835. About the same time the Liberty-Oxford Pike (now US 27) was formed, and the Old Indian Road ceased to be used and went out of existance. The Lower Four Mile Church was built in the early 1840's on the road along the Little Four Mile Creek. The Upper Four Mile Church was built in 1857 on the corner of the Nine Mile Road. Effectively, this indicates that the Nine Mile Road was built sometime about 1850 and it replaced the two earlier roads on either side.
At the Treaty of St. Marys (OH), 1818, after considerable pressure, the Delawares agreed with the other Indiana Indians to cede their lands to the government and take new lands in Missouri. (While the tribes moved to Missouri, there were individual families of Indians that remained in their old homes. These wandered the various communities and lived much as they could in their old ways despite the increasing presence of white families. There was begging and thievery by some, especially those overcome by fire water, sometimes even murders by one side or the other.) The Delawares moved away in 1820. The Indian "threat" was removed, Indiana Territory, from the White River south, was open to white settlers. Tobias Miller, son of Potter John, had already moved to these new lands in western Indiana, on Raccoon Creek in what became Parke County. His brother, John, was sent over to live with him. The legislature plotted their new capital, Indianapolis, at the mouth of Fall Creek on the White River, where a number of Indian trails met and crossed.
The Four Mile was the frontier. Then the frontier became lands some miles west of the Four Mile, then even more distant lands. The Four Mile was not a tamed area. It was still the deep forest, with only enclaves opened in it. Life was hard, but things were better than at first.
************************ Biographical and Genealogical History of Wayne, Fayette, Union and Franklin Counties, Indiana, 1899, Vol. I-II, Lewis Publishing Company
Biographical History of Preble County, Ohio, 1900, Lewis Publishing Co.
Centenial History of Butler County, Ohio, 1905, B V Bowen & Co.
History and Biographical Cyclopedia of Butler County, Ohio, 1882, Western Biographical Publishing Company
History and Geography of Union County, Indiana, 1884, W H Beers and Co.
History of Fayette County, Indiana, 1885, Warner Beers and Company
History of Montgomery County, Ohio, 1882, W H Beers & Co.
History of Preble County, Ohio, 1881, H Z Williams and Brother
Young, Andrew History of Wayne County, Indiana, 1872, Robert Clarke and Company
Memoirs of the Miami Valley, V I-III, 1919, Robert Law Co.
Memorial Record of Butler County, Ohio, 1894, Record Publishing Co.
Thompson, Charles N.
Sons of the Wilderness, John and William Conner, 2ed, 1988, Conner Prairie Press. p.142-3 (The general mercantile store of John Conner in the frontier town of Indianapolis, 1823) "as was customary, every kind of merchandise was carried for which there was demand. This embraced dry goods of all sorts, cotton, silk, wool, and linen; personal articles such as combs, umbrellas, parasols, and shawls; cutlery, queensware, hardware, tinware, saddlery, schoolbooks, groceries, shoes, etc. it was customary to keep in stock whisky, the usual price for which was twenty-five cents a gallon, if bought by the barrel. ...`An empty whisky barrel was set up on end in front of the counter, with a hole in the upper head for the drainage of the glasses. On this barrel was set a half gallon bottle filled with whisky, a bowl of maple sugar, and a pitcher of water and often in winter a tumbler of ground ginger...' The whiskey was not aged in wood and the fiery stuff aroused the tempers of the customers. Animosities thus heightened provoked scuffles and brawls that were complacently accepted by the town's inhabitants as ordinary happenings, ... he frankly urged his customers through the newspaper columns to settle their accounts `as frequent settlements should take place for the purpose of remaining long friends.' The added statement that `cash will not be refused' can be understood only when it is recalled that trade and barter were still the common mode of exchange and the currency had been so debased and discredited that indiscriminate acceptance of it was not general."
*Wigginton, Eliot & Bennett, Margie
Foxfire 9, Anchor Press, 1986, Doubleday, p. 77
Milk sickness is poisoning by milk from cows that have eaten White Snakeroot. ...The sickness has been called pucking [sic] fever, sick stomach, the slows and the trembles. ...In man, the symptoms are loss of appetite, listlessness, weakness, vague pains, muscle stiffness, vomiting, abdominal discomfort, severe constipation, bad breath and finally coma. Recovery is slow and may never be complete. More often an attack is fatal.
VI. The Dunkers
The central group of settlers on the Four Mile were the children of Elder Jacob Miller of the German Baptist Brethren Church, nicknamed Dunker. About 1773, he moved from Maryland to southwestern Virginia, Franklin Co., on the face of the Blue Ridge. In 1802, Elder Jacob Miller moved west from Franklin County, Virginia, to near Dayton, Ohio. In 1809, he with Elder John Hart of the Twin Creek Church, organized the Four Mile Church in Indiana. This is the basis of the statement about him: "He was the first Dunker Elder in Virginia, in Ohio and in Indiana."
The German Baptist Brethren started at Schwarzenau, Germany, in 1708, when a group of 8 persons decided that they wanted to practice as their belief what they read in the Bible. These eight were part of the movement in Germany at that time called the "Pietist Movement". Pietism had started at the University of Halle in the late 1600's and swept acrossed Germany. Its basic premise was to pattern one's life as close as possible on the teachings of Jesus Christ, the life Jesus told us to live. Gottfried Arnold's writings showed that the early church of the New Testament was a best example for this, hence the term "primitive christianity". The acceptance of the New Testament as the pattern of faith and practice was as complete as these people could learn and understand. Many of them learned to read the original Greek, using the best manuscripts available. They accepted the teachings of Jesus and the early church as their code of life and faith. They believed the Bible was literally the Word of God, and practiced it. They knew the work of the Holy Spirit in their lives, and practiced the gifts. As such they were like the later Pentecostals and Charismatics. They were considered radical, and they demanded a radical change in the life and practice of the church about them, and in its leaders. The change was to have life be a daily practice of the literal Word of God. They were thus a challenge to Christian Life in the established church, which the established church refused to accept.
Germany was then just stabilized from the Reformation starting with Martin Luther and John Calvin which had resulted in the 30 Years War. Luther and Calvin had formed two churches, the Lutheran Church and the Reformed Church. With the Catholic Church, these three became the established churches. The princes of the various states would personally choose which of the established churches would dominate in their state. In any state, Sunday attendance at the legal church was demanded. Tithing to it and specified offerings were required. Infants were baptized into it at birth, and the dead were buried from it in the sacred burial grounds. Marriages were only legal when sanctified by the clergy of the church. The church was the center of the whole of life, even that of the prince and his family. On this foundation, many of the abuses that led to Luther's 99 Thesis, continued. The Pietist movement called for a revival in the church, and especially among the clergy. The demand for change, and the resistance to change came into conflict. The result was persecution. As the zealots of change met stoney resistance to their faith, actions escalated and extremist activities occurred. The Pietists were labelled by such violence, and jail and death were the result of holding to the new faith. The local established church, and its faithful, reported the pietist meetings to the sheriff and the military. It was a matter of faith and reward to root out this "heresy". It became a matter of life or death to attend a Pietist Bible Study. They hid away, their teachers came in secrecy, yet lives were touched and new life begun, the movement spread widely, despite the threat of jail or death.
Ernst Hochman von Hochenau was such a teacher, and Alexander Mack, the miller, was a leader of a local group that met in his mill. There the noise of the water wheel would drown out the noises of the service. This small group of eight accepted the scripture: believe and be baptized. An infant could not believe, it was incapable of the mental processes. Baptism was thus for adults who would accept Jesus as their Savior, believe on Him as the Son of God, and be baptized as the cleansing of their sins. Even the Greek meaning of Baptism as baptidzo, was proclaimed. It meant put under the water, not sprinkled or water poured over the head. Following several scriptures, this small group determined a practice of Trine Immersion Baptism, "in the name of the Father, ‑and of the Son, ‑and of the Holy Spirit." If this was right by the Bible, it should be the practice of the believer. So they went down to the nearby River Eder. Someone, unnamed, baptized Alexander Mack, then he baptized the others. Ernst Hochman was elsewhere on his teaching tour, and when he heard what this group had done, he was very unhappy. He believed in these scriptures, but typically Pietistic, he also believed that the believers should work inside the existing churches to try to bring true faith and revival to all there, not to separate themselves apart. The service had not been done in secret, and these Baptizers (still known by that name today in Schwartzenau) were labelled, they were Pietist Separatists. This group were not quiet about what they believed, and they won others to their faith. Schwartzenau was in Wittgenstein, one of only a couple states where no state church was proscribed, but even so they quickly brought themselves to the attention of the authorities.
As believers were won from other states, persecution was directed at them. Many were asked to leave, give up their family homes and be gone. That was not simple in those days, many had never been more than a few miles from where they were born and except for the students at the University, a man worked in his father's shop, until it became his, and someday his son's. Some younger sons might be apprenticed out to learn a different trade, if there was no more room in the family shop. They had to have legal passes to travel outside the state (our township or county in size), and work was not there for them. Some few moved about illegally, and suffered the consequences when they were caught. Schwarzenau was a center for those who had no where else to go, and Alexander Mack was wealthy enough to provide for those who could find nothing to do to earn food. Creyfeld was another such center and the Baptizers fled to it. Following 1720, when Count Henry of Wittgenstein died, persecution arrived at Schwarzenau and they fled to Holland.
There had been another group who came out of the Reformation. They were not accepted as one of the established churches and were outlawed and persecuted. They were popularly called the Anabaptists, (to baptize again) since they held to adult, believers, baptism. They believed in the "imitation of Christ". This was an emphasis on self‑denial, renouncing earthly comfort and glory, thus the "simple life" and the refusal of all that could be deemed "worldly", that would detract from Christ‑likeness. They held to brotherhood and lived together in communities of faith. In such the Baptizers found common grounds. Creyfeld was their town, and the Anabaptists of that area followed the teachings of Menno Simons (a contemporary of Luther and, like him, a former Roman Catholic priest). They were popularly called Mennonites. The Baptizers, in German‑ Tunkers (or Englicized‑ Dunkers), found refuge among the Mennonites, and saw truth in many of their teachings from the Bible. But the Dunkers saw their young people beginning to joining the Mennonite Church, as various youth from both groups began to marry. While there was much truth in the Anabaptists teachings there were many vital differences, and the Brethren decided to move. Alexander Mack put up the money to send one shipload to the New World. William Penn, and the Quakers, were asking for good settlers in the New World colony, Pennsylvania. Just outside the city of Philadelphia was a whole colony of German settlers, Mennonites from Creyfeld had gone there early, so the Dunkers learned of it and were welcome. There these persecuted people could find a true refuge, a home in this New World where they had freedom to worship. In 1719, Peter Becker led the first group of Dunkers to Germantown, Pennsylvania. We do not know their names, but in some cases we know Dunkers of the Old World who were now in Pennsylvania. There were others than those who came on the first ship, and persecution did not stop just because these had left. Alexander Mack finally sold out his mill and entire estate and in 1729 brought another shipload to Germantown. There were still others who did not come with him. Some arrived on their own, later, while others fled to other areas to avoid persecution. For the Dunkers in America, the Germantown Church is the mother church.
The first shipload scattered, some stayed in Germantown, others followed a recent band of Mennonites to the western frontier, called Lancaster County, and its available land. During their first years, these new colonists found their lives absorbed with establishing home and means of life, then in 1723 the rumor of the arrival of the great preacher, Christian Libe, gathered some of them back to Germantown. The rumor was false, but they fellowshipped with the Germantown Brethren at Peter Becker's. Association followed and the church became established. They began to reach out to neighbors and friends and on Christmas day of that year, there was a baptism out of Becker's house, among them was Henry Landis and wife. They were from Coventry, and the church began at Germantown and reached out to these members there. Later names at Coventry also include Miller, Brower, Rinehart, Moyer, Fisher, Garber, all with connections to those who came to the Four Mile. (Elder Jacob Miller's brother, Tobias, married Barbara Brower and lived at Coventry at first.) Oley, in Berks Co., was another early settlement. Martin Gaby became a minister there, living at Pricetown. (His youngest daughter married Daniel Fiant and came to the Four Mile.) From Coventry and Oley moved a large group to the Conacocheague, the valley west of the Ridge, near Hagarstown, Md, and into Franklin Co. PA. George Adam Martin, from Coventry, was leader here, and the Millers still live around. George Adam Martin went on to Stoney Creek, in Brothers Valley, Somerset Co. PA., and the young Jacob Miller with his family followed to there.
The east side of the Blue Ridge, in Maryland, was called Germanland from the movement of the German speaking Dunkers into it. Two congregations were formed, named after two branches of the Monocacy River: the Pipe Creek and the Beaver Dam. When Elder Jacob Miller lived on his land on the east face of Catoctin mountain, he was in the Beaver Dam Church. Michael Danner of the Codorus Church had officially established a road from York Co., Pennsylvania, down along the Monocacy to the Potomac, at the crossing now called Harper's Ferry. Some of his children lived along it. It became a major migration path to the Valley of Virginia and the Great Indian Warpath that went the length of the Valley. At the head of the Great Valley, west of the Blue Ridge, in Maryland and into Pennsylvania was the Conacocheague Church, Antietam was one of its congregations. The Valley land was extremely fertile farmland due to the underlying limestone rock, the Dunkers were now good farmers.
Peter Becker had taught the weaver's trade to one Conrad Beissel, and later baptized him. Conrad Beissel was a radical pietist, particularly, a solitary or hermit. He became the leader of a community of his followers at Ephrata, on the Cocalico, in Lancaster Co. It was a Seventh Day Baptist community (their holy day was on Saturday), built around extreme simplicity, the solitary life, and Beissel's own teachings of the Christ‑like life. It was attractive to the pietist Dunkers and led to considerable controversy and division. George Adam Martin was a Seventh Day Baptist and Snow Hill Community still exists on the Conococheague as a branch of the Ephrata Cloisters. Alexander Mack, Jr. son of the founder, lived at Ephrata for a while, before he fled to the "far west".
There had been individuals and groups who followed the Monocacy Road to the Valley of Virginia and found settlement there, some followed the Great Indian War Path down the Valley and there were Dunker settlements extending down into the Holstein and Clinch valleys in Tennessee and along the face of the Blue Ridge from the Roanoke River down into the Carolinas. This was the far west where Alexander Mack Jr. had come, to Dunker's Bottom, south of the Roanoke River, on the New River. The disagreements between the English colonists and their mother country were of little concern to the German settlers, especially the non‑violent Dunkers. Verbal strife became physical persecution against those holding differing opinions, and the Dunkers became recipients of abuse and violence. A result was: the trickle to the far west, it became a flood. Elder Jacob Miller was only one of this flood of Dunkers from Pennsylvania. Others that went on to the Four Mile were such families as: Kingery, Eickenberry and Landis, Brower, Ritter, Rinehart, Becktelsheimer, Rife, and Crist. In the same migration, but not known to be originally Dunkers, were Hart, Huston and Moss.
In the Carolinas, an early tendency of the Dunkers united with an English religious movement, the Universalists, and most of the Carolina Church was lost. The Dunkers as Pietists tended to accept the tenant of "universal restoration", that a loving God would not permit his creation to be punished forever for their sins, that in his own way, at his own time, the salvation brought by Christ would extend to all men. The Universalists believed that no man would be condemned to the Hell, which was the future abode of Satan and his angels. This was another matter altogether to most of the Dunkers, as actions and papers out of the Annual Conferences of 1794 and 1800 state. They banned Brother H(endricks?) of North Carolina and the churches there left with him. The borderline between Radical Pietist "universal restoration" and Universalism was fine and many Dunkers wavered along it, with continuing loss of families or individuals. In 1821 the Universalists began preaching near Contraras. Tobias Miller, son of Elder Jacob, became a Universalist Minister and moved to LaPorte IN. A society was organized in 1847, charter members included many of the Col. John Miller family. (Read Benjamin Miller's letter, Nov. 18, 1841, in Appendix A.) Philomath, on the old Indian Road, in north‑western Union County, was a center of Universalism.
The Universalist Preacher, Elhenan Winchester, in 1803, said of the Dunkers that they "take the Scripture as their only guide, in matters both of faith and practice. ..such Christians I have never seen as they are: so averse are they to all sin, and to many things that other Christians esteem lawful, that they not only refuse to swear, go to war, etc. but are so afraid of doing anything contrary to the commands of Christ, that no temptation would prevail upon them ever to sue any person at law, for either name, character, estate, or any debt, be it ever so just. They are industrious, sober, temperate, kind, charitable people; envying not the great, nor despising the mean, they read much, they sing and pray much, they are constant attendents upon the worship of God, their dwellinghouses are all houses of prayer. They walk in the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless both in public and private. They bring up their children in the nurture and admonition of the Lord. No noise of rudeness, shameless mirth, loud vain laughter is heard within their doors. The law of kindness is in their mouths; no sourness or moroseness, disgraces their religion; and whatsoever they believe their Savior commands, they practice without requiring or regarding what others do. Rev. Morgan Edwards, formerly minister of the Baptist Church in Philadelphia, once said to me, "God always will have a visible people on earth; and these are his people at present, above any other in the world." (from Roger Sappington, Brethren in the Carolinas.)
The Dunkers were hard‑working farmers, who believed in Christ‑like living. They mostly spoke German, but many of the families from Franklin Co. VA., were English, so among the Four Mile families German soon died out, (at least, we find no record of it). They were community oriented, which is shown in the way the several major families intermarried and given names are repeated constantly in so many families. They lived the "simple life", as opposed to "fancy" or "worldly". This meant jewelry and sharp clothes, makeup and hair stylings for both men and women were not accepted. There was no "garb" as was later adopted when the Industrial Revolution crossed America, and as is still seen in the Old Order Dunkers in nearby Ohio. This Old Order garb of today is typical of the common dress of working man in that day, and as such was like that worn on the Four Mile. Being "plain" did not mean being out‑of‑date, indeed, the Dunkers were progressive in their advanced methods of farming and useful improvements to the home. Christ‑like living in the daily life meant some activities of their neighbors were not part of their life. Swearing and loose language were rejected. A phrase of description about the Dunkers typlified this: " A Dunker's Word is as good as his Bond!" Freemasonery, and the various Masonic Lodges, was creditably popularized by President George Washington and others of the Virginia Society. The Dunkers objected to the oaths required of the mason, and even more to the evidence of heathen beliefs about Jesus Christ incorporated in the higher levels of this secret society. Joining such was forbidden. Another was dancing. The waltz, popular in Virginia, was prohibited, as were the coarser folk dances or round dances of the frontier. Dunkers did not go to a dance, let alone participate. Playing with cards, besides being a waste of time, was almost completely associated with gambling, and was prohibited. Since professional gamblers wore long bar handle mustaches, the mustache was rejected for men, although the beard was expected. The loaning of money or usury was forbidden, also. A Christian did not take advantage of his brother in need, indeed, it was common to give aid to another, expecting no return. One method of earning money was available on the early frontier in Indiana, land would be purchased and held for later sale at a considerable profit. Some such lands went to sons or sons‑in‑law on marriage, many went to new migrants into the community. It should be noted that many of these were Brethren from back east. Such lands would be sold at or a little below current prices, but still at a profit to the seller. Itinerant Music Teachers came into the community and would hold a singing school, at night, often in the school building. Since the singing school would include popular or profane music, not singing in worship to the Lord, but actually having "leading" verse ("Sweet Adelaine"), the singing school was prohibited. It wasn't a case of denial to fun, it was a decision of where the importance of one's life should be placed. There was plenty of work to be done, there was not enough time left over to waste on things of ill repute. Scripture said, "Give no place to the evil one."
John Moss, son of Elder Abraham was put on the "ban", because he had a "Devil's Row" or "spite fence" with his neighbor (no agreement of property line, actually two parallel snake fences were built, some 18" apart, neighbor ‑likely Baltzer Lybrook), then he went to a singing school! The Ban was the threat and punishment of the local church. Because of the community atmosphere of the Dunkers, the center of life was in the church. The Four Mile was basically a family community: a few separate families, intermarried, and the kin of their spouses. The Ban prohibited association with an individual by any of the community, even his own family. He was not spoken to, even by members of his own family in his own home. He was not seen when he was around, or heard when he spoke. He became like a non‑person, and was effectively isolated from everyone. It was a very lonely exile. Man is not made to live alone, and as a result the ban was invariably effective, even to the most innocent or stubborn individual. The anticipated result was the confession of the individual of his sin, publicly, in front of the church, and his receiving forgiveness by the church. John Moss quit the church! (While the event of John Moss occurred several years following the time of this study, it shows the power of the ban on the individual in that day, and a result that did occur possibly too often. It was very similar to the "excommunication" of the Catholic Church.) The Ban became more common as the struggle of the church with the "world" became pronounced, during the Industrial Revolution following the Civil War. This struggle resulted in a more rigid, or legalistic, attitude about the beliefs and practices of the Dunkers, and disagreements concerning these beliefs were a primary cause of the 1881‑2 splintering of the Dunker Church into its several branches.
The Dunkers did not accept "Clergy". Their leaders were their neighbors, possibly the hardest type of ministry possible. If a person showed true Christlike living and had ability, they could be elected to be a deacon. From among the deacons, were called the ministers who showed ability to preach, or special concern for their brethren, some few ministers were ordained to the eldership on showing wisdom and outstanding ability. Each church had a Presiding Elder. They were not paid for their pastoral work, nor did they take schooling for the position, except as the man studied the Word of God himself and learned from the teaching of the Elders. It was called the "free ministry". Membership in the church was for adults. A young man was considered to be an adult when he could show evidence of ability to grow a beard. By then, possibly he was beyond many of the temptations of teenage rebellion and peer group pressures. He would choose to accept Christ and join the church. Consideration to the deaconship and ministry could not come until after the young man married. A minister especially had to show the scriptural order in his life. This included the admonition of the ability to control his own family, before he could control the church of Christ, so ministers, and thus elders, were normally older, after they had children. Many a minister never was considered for the Eldership because of the rebellion and misbehavior of his teenage children. Christ had to rule in the home and life of the minister. (The author's grandfather wanted to become a minister, he let his beard grow and it came out half red and half black, he shaved it off. He never became a minister, he had too much pride.)
The early Dunkers did not have church buildings, but met in the various homes as the individual's turn came, and his house had space to hold the gathering. Frequently meetings were held in the barn, or even outdoors under a spreading tree, weather permitting. Sunday Schools were unknown, although there was a special emphasis on teaching the children: Sower's Press, in Germantown before the Revolution, had printed special cards for the children. Depending on how the Spirit led, there might be more than one sermon at a Sunday Meeting, and services could last for several hours. Later, when church buildings were constructed (1840 for Lower Four Mile and 1857 for Upper Four Mile), some special features evolved. Remodeling at the Upper Four Mile Church has covered it up, but the signs of the customary double entrance were still visible until recent years. The front of the church had two separate doors, the one to the right was for the women, the one to the left for the men. Inside the church, between the doors, was the preachers' bench. Against the wall was the ministers bench with a long table in front of it. The active ministers (sometimes only those who would participate that day, sometimes all ministers, including visiting) would be sitting facing the congregation. (You didn't arrive late, you made sure you were early, else you had to enter church right up front, on either side of the ministers, neither did you get up during the service to go to the restroom.) Directly in front of the ministers' table was deacon's bench, also facing the congregation. In the service the deacons read scripture and led the singing. Since no musical instruments were in the church and often few hymn books, lining of the songs was common. A Deacon would read one or a couple lines, then the congregation would sing them, then a couple more would be lined. (One result might be that the tune would be pitched low, often far too low, another, that the timing of the song would be lost, and the beat of the song so slow that the song would drag interminably.) To the left of the ministers, beyond the mens' door, was the Elders' corner, often called the Amen Corner. Here were several benches facing toward the ministers, for the Elders, where they could also observe the whole church congregation. Opposite, beyond the womens' door was a similar set of benches of ministers' and elders' wives. The church body sat separately by sex in front of the ministers and deacons. Some Dunker churches placed a wooden partition, or at some high enough to be a wall, down the center of the church between men and women. (Of course, young folks will always find a way around ‑ like a knot‑hole that a finger can unobtrusively be stuck through, knowing that a certain One had chosen the opposite side.) The men had pegs in the wall around their side on which they hung their broad brimmed hats. In the back of the church was a huge fireplace, used for preparation of Communion, and of course for heating in the winter. The church building would be kept spotlessly clean, painted white inside and out. Following the service would be a church dinner for all, with fellowship and socializing, then home. For those from a distance, it might be dark till they were home. Services did not meet in every church every Sunday, Whitewater, and later New Bethel, met only once a month. Likely Upper and Lower Four Mile congregations alternated Sundays. Attendance was expected at the local church and those that could, attended at the farther churches.
Church organization in the Dunker church is basically congregational. The Presiding Elder of the local church moderated the council meetings and overviewed all church activities. He was directly responsible to the body of elders and ministers that were members of the local church, and to the collective body of elders of Annual Meeting. Local matters were decided by vote of the church in council. The vote was to be unanimous. This was based on the concept of the guidance of the Holy Spirit, that the Holy Spirit speaks with one voice. To be sure of the guidance of the Holy Spirit, each person must seek to know His will. A matter of concern or decision is brought up before the council meeting of the whole church membership. The elders speak, giving direction about the matter, others may speak also, then the matter is prayed over and brought to voice vote. If the vote is not unanimous, it means that the guidance of the Holy Spirit has not become known to all the congregation. Further discussion is not accepted, but it is again brought before the Lord in prayer (sometimes the prayers were addressed more to the congregation than to the Lord), then another vote is taken. If the vote is again not unanimous, then further guidance must be sought and the matter is postponed to the next council meeting. The intervening time is used to seek the Lord to know His will on the matter. At the next meeting the same procedure is followed, first the elders speak on the matter, summarizing what has gone on previously, possibly presenting any insights that the Lord has given them. Others are allowed the right to similarly speak (with restraint), then the matter is brought to prayer and then a vote. Church council meeting records and Annual Meeting records of this time on occasion have shown a matter brought up again and again for several years before a unanimous decision is reached. Some cases have only one or a few for or against a measure at the start, but in the end received the unanimous decision. In others, the matter is finally left undecided because no unanimous decision was reached, and likely, because the matter was so inconsequential that the Lord wasn't interested in the church wasting more time on it. If a matter was too devisive, or of critical importance beyond the local church, it would be brought to the Annual Meeting for final
decision. (Please remember that all Four Mile Church records were lost in a house fire in the 1890's, but similar records of other churches are available.)
The local church was responsible to the decisions of the total church denomination. Their decisions must be within the acceptance of the Annual Meeting. Annual Meeting was held each year at the time of the New Testament Pentacost and moved among the various areas where the Dunkers lived in strength. With so many prestigious elders present from distant states, people flocked to hear them preach. Outstanding sermons were heard from the most eloquent of preachers. Great teachings were heard from the best of the Bible scholars. The services were at least as important as the business conducted. It was a huge revival to the local community, and also carried on the work of the church and consolidated its position on questions facing the church. The elders in attendance at Annual Meeting would elect from among themselves 12 who would be called the "Standing Commitee". These would be the official body for the coming year. Each year one of these elders was chosen to moderate the Annual Meeting and be the foreman of the Standing Committee for the coming year, thus becoming the head official of the church for that year. According to the nature of the business of Annual Meeting, other committees might be formed, they would complete their assignment, and report to the next year's Annual Meeting. The elders, ministers and some deacons formed the voting body, representing their local churches. Decisions were made according to scripture. The same procedure was used at Annual Meeting as at the local council meeting. One or several elders would speak on a matter or issue facing the church, then there was prayer and then a vote was taken. One interesting result of this was the importance that was put on the presentations of leading elders.* Annual Meeting ended with a communion service.
There were several special services of the church that are unique to the Dunkers. The Trine Immersion Baptism is one of these. For baptism, the whole assembled church went down to the nearby Four Mile Creek (at Upper Four Mile it was on the Hart farm, just below the Boston Pike. Lower Four Mile Church was built on the bank above the stream.) Running water was originally part of the scriptural demands. There the candidates together give their affirmation of faith by answering three questions that affirm their faith in Jesus and his salvation for them, and their surrender of their life to him. Then, one by one they were taken into the stream (where the water was about waist deep) and baptized. The candidate for baptism knelt down in the water and the minister standing beside them, had them cover their nose and mouth with their own hands, then he placed his hands one behind their head and the other covering their hands. He then dipped them forward into the water (Christ bowed his head in death) once each for: "in the name of the Father, ‑and of the Son, ‑and of the Holy Spirit". Before they rose up out of the water, a prayer for the infilling of the Holy Spirit was made over the new‑born Christian. If the group of candidates was large, several ministers might successively baptize the candidates, so that one was being baptized while the previous was removed from the water and the next brought in. To the horror of one old Dunker Elder at Beaver Dam (MD.), the author was only able to immerse one candidate twice for baptism, taking well over a half hour for that, due to her size, and to her horror of water. The old Elder would have commanded her to go home until her fear of hell was greater than her fear of the water.
Communion is another service of the Church. The Dunker Communion Service consists, according to scripture, of five parts: the Examination Service, the Footwashing, the Holy Kiss, the Love Feast and the Communion. The Examination Service was essentially a sermon, or several, reminding people directly if the occasion demanded, generally otherwise, of sin and need for forgiveness. Such might be the subject of the afternoon services ahead of Communion, but was part of the service that night. Implicit to receiving forgiveness from the Lord was the scripture that we must forgive those who sinned against us. Some who were not ready to forgive another would refuse to attend, for kin and neighbors knew the problems between brethren (and sisters). To forstall this, previous to the Communion was a Deacon's Visitation to each member, to work out differences and feelings. The Examination Service concluded with beseaching the Lord for
The Footwashing Service followed with the scripture that Jesus washed the Disciples feet, then commanded them to do as He had done to them. The eastern Brethren, and this likely included the Four Mile, practiced what is called the "double mode" of footwashing. Here (men and women are seated separately and so wash their neighbor's feet) a basin of water is provided at the end of each table, with a long towel "with which he girded himself", long enough to wrap around the waist and hang down to be used for wiping. The feet are washed by gently running water over them, dipped up by hand out of the basin, or sometimes the feet are immersed in the water. Then the feet are dried with the towel, following which the brothers stand and exchange the holy kiss. When a brother is finished washing feet, the towel is passed on to the next brother in line. A minister or another begins by coming around the end of the table to his left and washing the feet of the brother. He may continue to wash the feet of several consecutive brothers and finally retakes his seat. Once a brother's feet are washed by all before him, he then proceeds to wash the feet of those brothers after him, seated along the table and around the opposite side. This continues until all have washed the feet of their brethren. Any one individual will have his feet washed several to many times. Simultaneously, the same has been occuring among the women on their side of the church. Normally, hymns are sung during the feet washing. In some churches the Holy Kiss was not bestowed during the Foot Washing service, but once it was completed, then all the brethren practiced the Holy Kiss. The Far Western Brethren practiced what is called the Single Mode of feetwashing, (they were predominant in early Illinois, seeming to have come out of Washington Co. PA., where the Shideler's were from, and Tennessee/Kentucky.). They washed the feet of only the brother next to them at the table. All else was similar. (This is the customary procedure now, as a result of the compromise between the eastern Dunkers and the Far Western Brethren in settling their differences.)
There had been some discussion whether the Love Feast (meal) should take place before the foot washing or following it (Christ "rose up from the table and took a towel‑" Again, practiced by the Far Western Brethren). The custom is that the meal follows the foot washing. A prayer was offered for the meal, and frequently the custom was to offer one of thanks following the meal. The Love Feast is a shared meal consisting of meat and sop. While originally the meat was mutton according to scripture, beef replaced it on the American frontier. (There is no record to ascertain if mutton was ever used on the Four Mile, although records from Ohio, nearby, indicate the change took place about 1830. Because of the close association of the Four Mile with the Ohio churches, the change of meat probably took place here about the same time.) Bread is added to the beef broth and cooked together to form the sop. Modern affluency permits each communicant to have a plate to eat from, communion utensils remaining from early Four Mile include tin plates, but these would have come from manufacturing of the Industrial Revolution (after the time of this study). Some customs have carried through that indicate that early churches did not have the ware to do this. A dish of sop, a plate of meat and a plate with a thick sliced loaf of bread sat on each table. These were passed around the table. Each person took a thick piece of bread to form their own dish and dipped meat and sop on it, and then ate. Cups (laterly often tincups) were available to drink water.
The Communion closed the meal. Following appropriate scriptures and prayer, specially prepared unleavened bread was broken to each communicant. The bread was about 1/4 inch thick and in strips about 1 inch wide. It was lightly cooked so it was whitish in color. Fork prong marks down the strip allowed for easy breakage. Scripture was read, then a minister or deacon with a tray of bread (strips) started a strip on each table by breaking it for the first person, then handing him the strip of bread, that communicant broke a piece for the next, handing it to him and then giving him the remainder of the strip of bread. This proceeded around the table, followed by the minister with a tray of bread, so a strip could be replaced when it became too short to break another piece from it. In some churches, each repeated the scripture from Romans as he broke the bread for the next person. Once the bread was broken for all, some churches now said the scripture from Romans in unison, and each solumnly ate, (what the custom was at Four Mile we have no record). The Cup of the New Testament normally held a low alcohol wine, although about 1850 the temperance movements, and especially from the Methodist Church, challenged the Dunkers, so that Annual Conference determined that grape juice was appropriate. One Cup of wine was on each table. Following scripture and prayer, the corresponding scripture from Romans was again said in unison and the cup was passed slowly from communicant to communicant around the table. Each in turn took a sip and turned the cup slightly before passing it to the next. (The alcohol and turned cup provided relatively sanitary conditions.) Again a minister followed the cup around the table, carrying a pitcher of wine to refill it when necessary. A hymn was sung, prayer of dismissal was given, and "they went out".
The Communion was a Church service. It normally was celebrated at any church only once a year. At Four Mile it was held on Saturday night with preaching starting in the afternoon. Local and visiting ministers and elders took turns preaching. Four Mile Communion drew brethen from distances around to the service. Visitors would likely have come from the Twin Valley area of Preble County and included Miami Valley churches, along with the Nettle Creek Church in Indiana. Four Mile members would have traveled between the Upper and Lower congregations and come over from the Whitewater. With slow horse and wagon transportation, there was no possibility for these distant brethren to travel following the night service, so lodging had to be provided for them. Upper Four Mile does not contain the attic sleeping facilities of some of the old Dunker Churches, neither did Lower Four Mile. The lodging was provided by the local members in their houses and barns, sleeping on the floor when bedspace ran out. For the children, this was a festive occasion. During the afternoon the church was rearranged for Communion. Benches were reversed to face the next bench. These benches were especially made such that the back of the bench could be laid on top of the bench supports to form a table. The tables were placed between a pair of benches. Food had been collected to serve the guests as well as prepare for the Love Feast. The big fireplace in the back of the church gave off delicious aroma. Arriving hungry visitors could satisfy their starved young ones, then proceed for themselves. An evening meal was served before communion, as the Corinthians scriptures encouraged. Since Communion thus became an overnight meeting, there was breakfast at the church the next morning. It was a Sunday: morning service was held with church dinner following. It was not uncommon for non‑Brethren visitors to observe the communion, in fact, the records show that the whole community came, if not to observe, at least for the food and visiting. They were not allowed to participate in the service if they were not Dunker members, but they sat on benches around the outside wall and watched. Children and youth who were not yet members were also observers, although frequently young men found alternate activity outside.
The Dunkers hold the Bible to be the inerrant Word of God. God does not changing, he is the same from everlasting to everlasting. What he has said, he will fullfill, even if you or I do not agree with what is said. Men can offer explanations of this and exceptions to it, to obtain their own desires, but that does not change God's Word. Accordingly the Dunkers hold the sixth commandment to be true as the Bible says it: "Thou shalt not kill." The Dunker belief in Pacificism has set the church apart throughout its history. It has led to persecution and ridicule, imprisonment or worse through every conflict and war our nation has faced. It has led to condemnation and violent attack by neighbors and even personal friends. It has brought arguments and splintering within Dunker families, as youth faced by the peer pressures of the community in the hysteria of war fever, decided against their own family's faith. Many of these separations have never been reconciled. This belief was instrumental in the movement of the Four Mile Dunker families down the Valley of Virginia just previous to our Revolution. It has faced the Brethren on the Four Mile, when there was Indian threat during the War of 1812 and local militia were formed, and again as the cries arose against slavery and the slave holder and the nation girded itself to fight its own countrymen. The Dunkers have faced violence for obeying scripture and showing love to the enemy, as well as the friend. For this they are not understood. They do not condone evil, but attempt to resolve the problem behind the conflict, which the use of force has never managed to do. This follows the teachings of Christ, it is called Peace Making.
There are two religious movements that had direct effect on the church on the Four Mile during this time. Both drew some of the Dunkers into leaving the Four Mile Church and joining with other beliefs.
Peter Han brought the Universalism practiced by many of the Dunkers in North Carolina with him into Kentucky. The Brethren at Annual Meeting condemned it as a false belief, and told its people that they should no longer accept it as part of our belief. As a result, most of the Churches in the Carolinas and Kentucky were lost to the Denomination. Whether Peter Han ever came to the Four Mile, in his preaching missions in Southern Ohio, is unknown. The Universalists did establish their major center at Philomath in Wayne Co, just west of the White Water River on the Old Indian Road. The Col. John Miller family in the south of the Lower Four Mile congregation were principals in the formation of a Universalist Church on Pleasant Run about 1845. Tobias Miller, son of Elder Jacob, became a Universalist Preacher, before he moved to LaPorte IN in 1833.
The New Light Revival swept across the Ohio Valley in the 1830's. It became the Christian Churches: Congregational Christian and Disciples of Christ, esp. In the Four Mile, the Concord Church of Christ is some 3 miles east of Upper Four Mile, and Carey Toney Sr was a charter member of it. Many present members of Four Mile are buried in the Cemetery there. Some 3 miles west of Upper Four Mile is the Hanna's Creek Christian Church. John and Nancy (Lybrook) Nelson lived there and gave the land for the church. These do not seem to be many, who left their home church, but it is unknown how many carried the disaffection with them in the migrations of the 1830's and 1850's that left for more distant regions.
* The author, as a youth, at Richmond, VA, Annual Conference, heard the old elder, I.N.H. Beahm, a very leading elder for the whole denomination, present on a vital matter. Repeatedly he used the status of his name and position: "I.N.H. Beahm says ‑ ‑ ‑ ". Interestingly, when the vote went against his leadership, his disappointment was obvious. He came out of the meeting very rapidly for an elderly man, seeing the author and his brother in the entrance he started for us, we separated around some large pillars. He caught my brother (about 16 yrs old) and gave him the kiss of brotherly love very forcefully, something neither of us wanted at that time. I now suspect that it was a reminder to him by himself that he still loved the brethren, even if they didn't follow his insights.
Understanding Pietism, 1978, Wiliam Eerdsman Publishing Co.
class on Pietism, Bethany Biblical Seminary, 1958
A History of the German Baptist Brethren, 1899, Brethren Publishing House
Cover, Joseph and Murray, Samuel
Minutes of the Annual Meetings of the Brethren, 1886, Christian Publishing Association Printers
European Origins of the Brethren, 1958, The Brethren Press
The Brethren in Colonial America, 1967, The Brethren Press
Durnbaugh, Donald, ed.
The Brethren Encyclopedia, Vol 1‑3, 1983, The Brethren Press
Garst, Jesse, ed.
History of the Church of the Brethren of the Southern District of Ohio, 1920, Otterbein Press
Holsinger, H. R.
History of the Dunkers and the Brethren Church, 1901, (1963, Pacific Press Publ. Co.)
Studies in Brethren History, 1954, Brethren Publishing House
"Four Mile Church of Brethren to Mark 130th Anniversary Sunday",
Richmond Palladium‑Item, September 14, 1939
The Brethren in a New Nation, 1976, The Brethren Press
The Brethren in Virginia, 1973, Committee for Brethren History in Virginia
The Brethren in the Carolinas, 1971, Bridgewater, Virginia
VII. FOUR MILE JOURNAL
This book is covering the period from the beginning of migration to the Four Mile, or about 1800, to 1860, or just before the beginning of those series of world changing events that began with the Civil War and progressed through the settlement of the west and the Industrial Revolution. While no one date can be pointed at to say: "Here's when it changed!" This author arbitrarily pointed to the climatic events of the War between the States, or Civil War, as a harbinger of what was yet to come.
This Journal gathers the known events that directly effected the people on the Four Mile during this period of time and gives a diary or Journal type of yearly presentation. It presents politics and events for the men, and includes marriages and deaths, for the women.
1784 John Toney, elder brother of Carey Toney, leaves the Continental Line of the Revolutionary army, goes to Georgia and marries Polly Toney. They build a brick house on the New River at the East River. First brick house west of the mountains.
1789 Battle of Yorktown, Revolutionary War, Decisive Concluding Battle of Revolutionary War. Carey Toney with brothers: William (Sgt), Edmund, and twin brother, Poindexter, are with Bedford Co. Militia
1781 Philip Lybrook, son of Philip Leibrock, married Anna Miller, dau of Elder Jacob, Franklin County, Virginia.
1782 Pennsylvania Militia massacre Moravian Christian Indians (Delawares), at Schoenbrunn and Gnaddenhutten (Tuscaras River, Ohio). These had been true to the Colonial Americans during the Indian wars of the Revolution. British force mission Indians to move near fort of Detroit. (Conner family escaped massacre, forced to move.)
1785 Daniel Fosher married Marillis Eckel, dau of Jacob and Elizabeth (Miller), Botetourt County, Virginia
1787 John Ritter married Eve Miller, dau of Elder Jacob, Franklin County, VA
1789 Revolutionary War ends, Treaty of Paris
Carey Toney, son of William, married Betsy Doran, dau of Hartman and Mary, Franklin County, Virginia
William Crawford, son of James and Elizabeth (Robertson), married
Isabella McClure, dau of Halbert and Mary (Henderson), Franklin County, Virginia
1791 Peter Eikenberry, Jr. son of Peter and Fronica (Groff), married Elizabeth Landis, dau of Henry and Mary (Carver), Franklin County, Virginia
1792 The army of General Arthur St. Clair was severely defeated by the Indians at Ft Recovery OH, as he attempted to recoup the loss suffered by General Harmer at the three rivers (now Ft. Wayne)
John Miller (Potter) son of Elder Jacob, married Phoebe McClure, dau of Halbert and Mary (Henderson), Franklin County, Virginia
James Huston, son of Thomas and Agnes, married Sarah, (?Franklin County, Virginia)
Peter Ridenour, son of Jacob and Susannah (Fisher), married Margaret Darcuss, dau of Frederick and Margaret, Washington County, Maryland
1793 John Ritter died
1794 General Anthony Wayne was given command of the Northwest Territory following the defeat of General St. Clair. A huge army was gathered at Ft. Washington, centered around a contingent of the Continental Line.
The army moved north to Ft. Greenville, which had been built as its headquarters, then to the new stockade built at the site of General St. Clair's defeat, Ft. Recovery. It continued North to the Auglaize River and its junction with the Maumee River. Ft. Defiance was built there.
Following the Maumee brought it to the primary villages of the Ohio Indian Tribes. The villages and crops were destroyed. The Indians used the natural advantages of a heavy breastwork of dead timber left by a tornado as they fought General Wayne's Army. The army went to bayonets and charged into the morass. Some of the settler cavalry found a passage past the ruins next to the river and as the Indians were driven out of the timber they were taken by the cavalry. It was a major Indian defeat. The loss of their food supplies for the coming winter ended the conflict.
Matthew Hueston is a waggoneer for the army, and for a while head of commissary at Ft. Jefferson.
Delaware Indians, including remnants of Moravian Christian Indians of Gnadenhutten, Salem and Schoenbrunn, settle on White River in Indiana. Joseph Kingery, son of Jacob and Franky, married Eve (Miller) Ritter, dau of Elder Jacob, Franklin County, Virginia.
1795 In a great Conference at Ft. Greenville, a treaty was signed surrendering a large portion of Ohio Territory to white settlement. A line was drawn from Ft. Recovery eastward to the Ohio River to Ft Henry (Wheeling), and another drawn southward to the Ohio River from there. The line drawn southward, did not go directly south, but angled slightly westward to where the mouth of the Kentucky River is on the Ohio (near Madison, IN now). In this area, the Indian could live and hunt, but the white man was allowed to settle and build his farms without fear of Indian attack.
Edmund Toney, son of William, married Malinda Chasteen, dau of William and Sary, Franklin County, Virginia
1796 Henry Lybrook, son of Baltzer and Catherine (Ream), married 2/wife, Hannah Hankey, (? Franklin County, Virginia)
1798 Delaware Indians invite Shawnees, includes Tecumsah, to settle on White River (remain until 1805), probably Anderson's Town.
1799 John Miller and family take land at Wolf Creek on the Great Miami south of the village of Dayton. They later move north of the village. An unidentified Gingrich is there. Gingrich is the Swiss original of the family name corrupted to Kingery. These could be Potter John Miller and Joseph Kingery.
Tobias Miller, son of Elder Jacob, married Sarah Henderson, daughter of Samuel and Mary (Henderson/McClure), Franklin County, Virginia, (half-sister to Phoebe McClure).
Thomas Huston, Jr. son of Thomas and Agnes, married Tabitha Wright, Franklin County, Virginia
1800 Peter Ridenour arrived on the Four Mile by pack train (string of pack horses) from Maryland. His land was on the Little Four Mile about 3/4 mile west of the juncture of the Middle Fork and Hopewell Branch. The Old Indian Road crossed the Little Four Mile just west of this juncture and at this site a trading post had been established and a permenant Indian camp had come into existance. The constant presence of Indians ran Peter out. He went down near Ft. Hamilton.
It was called the Year of the Locust, because hordes of locust ate everything that was green.
Very bad winter. Three months of a solid layer of snow covered by a layer of ice and sleet. It was so deep that the buffalo (bison) starved and were killed off by the wolves. Buffalo were seldom seen in the Four Mile area afterward.
The Ohio State Line was run going straight north from the Great Miami River at the Ohio. This created an area between the Greenville Treaty Line from Ft. Recovery to the Mouth of the Kentucky River and this new Ohio State Line. This is called the Gore. It was the first area of Indiana Territory.
Isaac Miller, son of Elder Jacob and Phoebe (McClure), married Hannah Webb, Franklin County, Virginia
Jacob Kingery, son of Jacob and Franky, married Barbara Lybrook, dau of Philip and Anna (Miller), Franklin County, Virginia.
John Kingery, son of Jacob and Franky, married Anna Richardson, Franklin County, Virginia.
David Landis, son of Henry and Mary (Carver), married Elizabeth Peckleshimer, dau of Henry Becktelsheimer, Franklin County, Virginia
(Col.) John Miller married Nancy Capper, Franklin County, Virginia
1801 It is called the Year of the Squirrels. They are said to have destroyed everything they saw.
An Indian Trail from Cincinnati to Muncytown followed the Middle Branch of the Whitewater River. It went via Cedar Grove, Brookville, Fairfield, Connersville, New Castle to Munceytown and Anderson's Town. It was used by the Conners brothers, John and William, to set up trading posts at Cedar Grove, below Brookville, (and later Connersville) and Conners Prairie, (near Noblesville, IN) respectively.
There was a very heavy crop of mast. Mast is the nut of the beech tree, one of the most common forest trees of the Four Mile terminal forest. The result was large numbers of turkeys, so many they were a nuisance. Also, mast is a favorite food of the hogs that ran wild in the forest. They were good and fat this year.
John and Tobias Miller are reported in Butler Co. Ohio.
1802 Elder Jacob Miller moved to Bear Creek near Dayton.
Survey of the Gore, in Indiana, is begun - surveyors are Isreal Ludlow and Benjamin Chambers.
Daniel Fiant, son of Martin, married Salome Gaby, youngest daughter of Elder Martin and Susannah (Price), of the Oley Church (in eastern Pennsylvania near Philadelphia). They came to the Whitewater River. The ford where the Old Indian Road crossed the Whitewater River now gains the name: Fiant's Ford. (at Yankeetown- this is previous to the Government Survey of the Gore, so the land is not yet opened for settlement. Daniel was a squatter.) Daniel Fiant was from Berks Co., PA. We have no record that he came by way of Virginia.
John Moyer married Elizabeth Witter, dau of Christopher and Mary (Ulrey), Pennsylvania (Lancaster County vicinity)
John Rife married Francis Crist, near Winchester, Virginia
1803 On a national level, this as the year President Thomas Jefferson made the controversial Louisianna Purchase. This delighted many on the frontier, since it gave recognition to our westward expansion as a nation. To the common man on the frontier, it meant that the government was going to look out for him, he wasn't left hanging on his own, as had happened to so many in Kentucky and the Ohio lands in earlier days. Ohio became a state.
The survey of the Gore in Indiana Territory was finished. This meant it soon would be opened up for settlement.
James and Samuel Huston and Joseph Kingery took lands on the Little Four Mile Creek. This was the first settlement of the Virginia Colony, the migration from Franklin County, VA. to the Four Mile.
Isaac Miller moved from Virginia to Greene Co., Ohio. This is northeast of Dayton and was where his wife's kin were coming (the Webb family).
Samuel Kingery, son of Jacob and Franky, married Sarah Heckman, Franklin County, Virginia
John Witter, son of Christopher and Mary (Ulrey), married Anna Moyer, PA
1804 Thomas Jefferson was running for his second term in office. The Democrat-Republicans ran George Clinton as his Vice President. The Federalists ran Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina against him again. There was no contest and Thomas Jefferson won.
John Fosher, son of Daniel and Marillis (Eckel), married Elizabeth Landis, dau of Henry and Susannah, Campbell County, Virginia
1805 Indiana Territory (the Gore) was opened up for settlement. The Land Office was in Cincinnati, so all purchases had to be made there. Potter John Miller, of the Elder Jacob Miller family, was a first settler. He settled on Indian Creek about 2 miles south of Joseph Kingery. His land was 1/2 mile wide and 1 mile long bordering on the Ohio State Line. An old well pit in the bend of Indian Creek near the clay pit there, probably marked his cabin site.
William Brown, wife Sarah Guffy, took land that winter on the Little Four Mile about 2 miles north of Joseph Kingery. His land was just south of the Old Indian Road.
William Ramsey settled on the Middle Four Mile, just north of the juncture with the Little Four Mile. He was from Virginia, his wife was Barbara Miller. William Ramsey established the first mill.
Aaron Miller, son of Elder Jacob, married Elizabeth Hardman, dau of Solomon, Dayton, Ohio
Michael Kingery, son of Jacob and Franky, married Betsy Webb, daughter of James Webb and Lucy, Greene County, Ohio
Christian Kingery, son of Jacob and Franky, ?married Jinney (?Peckleshimer) Abshire, Franklin County, Virginia, 2/husband
1806 A trail was run due west from Eaton to the state line (extended it goes to Boston), it angled acrossed Union Co. to the river crossing town of Brownsville, and from there to Conner's Trading Post, Connersville
Peter Ridenour returns to his home on the Four Mile.
Little Four Mile was known as Ridenour Creek.
William Crawford took land just south of Potter John Miller. They were best of friends and their wives were sisters. The Crawford Cemetary is on William's land.
Jacob Kingery, Sr. and most of his family arrived. (Jacob is the father of Joseph.) They took land in Indiana Territory west of Joseph, north of Potter John. This is the area of College Corner. Jacob Sr. himself lived near the Keffer Cemetary, about 1 1/2 miles west of College Corner, or south east of Cottage Grove.
Christopher Witter and family took land on the Four Mile just north of William Brown. This was on the Old Indian Road as it crossed into Indiana Territory. John Moyer, son-in-law, took land just to the west of Christopher. The Witter Cemetary is on the bank above where the Indian Road forded Four Mile creek.
Philip Lybrook came to the upper Four Mile with his two eldest sons, John and Jacob. They cleared land, planted a crop and built a cabin. The two young men remained over winter, tending the property, while Philip returned to Virginia for the rest of the family.
Peter Eickenberry, Jr. came to the Twin Valley in eastern Preble Co. This is part of the same migration from Franklin Co., VA. as the Miller families. His father-in-law, Henry Landis came also. Children of both are members of the Virginia Colony on the Four Mile.
The Lewis and Clark expedition returns from crossing the continent in the new Louisiana Purchase. Their reports of the great west, plains, mountains, to the Pacific Ocean swept the nation and impacted the frontier.
William Moss, son of Edmund and Elizabeth (Barnett), married Elizabeth Lybrook, dau of Philip and Anna (Miller), Franklin County, Virginia
Jesse Toney, son of William, married Froney Sink, dau of Stephen.
Joseph Pagin married Susannah Fosher, dau of Daniel and Marillis (Eckel), Bedford County, Virginia
1807 A great windstorm toppled huge trees in the forest. The forest giants mutually supported each other, it had to be a great wind.
The harvested wheat had some kind of fungus or bacteria on it, even when made into bread and baked, it made people sick. The whiskey stills found that they had no problem with it.
Peter Ridenour started a mill at his place on the Four Mile. The saw mill was a water powered crosscut saw, counter balanced on the upper end. The corn mill was known as a cracker mill. Essentially, a log was balanced over a pivot. One end was hollowed, the other had a pounding mortar. As water fell over the dam into the hollowed end, it would drop, raising the mortar. The water would then spill out and the mortar end would drop into a hollowed stump where it would crush the corn into meal. Opportunity struck and son, Samuel, set up a distillery at the mill for whiskey.
David Landis came to Indiana Territory. His land lay beween the Witters and the Lybrooks, about midway between Upper and Lower Four Mile.
Samuel Ritter takes land in Center Twp, on the Four Mile.
1808 Presidential Election year: The Democrat-Republicans put up James Madison of Virginia. They were split between several candidates for Vice President. The Federalists put up Charles Cotesworth Pinckney again with Rufus King of New York as Vice President candidate. James Madison won as President and George Clinton of New York won as Vice President. Clinton died in office just before the end of this term. Those living on the Ohio side of the state line can vote, but Indiana is still a territory and has no vote for the presidency. Imagine if you will the furor engendered by that along the Four Mile, those on the east side could vote, not those on the west.
Elder John Hart comes to Upper Twin Creek, Preble Co. OH
Daniel Miller, son of Elder Jacob, married Elizabeth Sheidler, daughter of Henry, Dayton, Ohio
David Miller, son of Elder Jacob, married Sarah Hardman, dau of Solomon, Dayton, Ohio.
(ca) William Toney, son of Carey and Betsy (Doran), married Sarah Keene
1809 Elders Jacob Miller of Bear Creek and John Hart of Twin Valley establish the Four Mile Church. Daniel Miller and John Moyer are elected as resident ministers, Christopher Witter and Joseph Kingery as deacons
John Lybrook son of Philip and Anna (Miller) returned to Virginia and married his sweetheart, Fanny Toney. He brought her mother back with him. They lived just west of his father. His land is located now on the Nine Mile Road, 1/2 mile south of the church.
Martin Kingery moved to the Four Mile from Greene County, OH. His land was north of the Keffer Cemetary or just east of Cottage Grove.
Further south a party of 3 arrived from Virginia: Tobias Miller (brother of Potter John), Col. John Miller (likely a cousin) and Thomas Webster Tobias Miller settled west of Potter John, on Indian Creek, where the large brick house he built is still standing.
Col. John Miller settled in the far south of the settlement, on a small creek called Pleasant Run (or Brandywine) that flows into Indian Creek. He obtained his title of Col. due to his activities during the next several years of Indian scare. He directed, or at least actively assisted, in the construction of a fort or fortified cabin, south in Franklin Co.
(Until the formation of Union Co. in 1821, Franklin Co. IN, contains the southern half of now Union Co. up into Center twp. about to Goodwin's Corners acrossed to Liberty. The northern part of the Four Mile community was in Wayne Co. IN. This was about the division between the Upper and Lower Four Mile communities/churches.)
The Beech Mast failed, hogs in the wild were thin and the squirrels raided the corn. As this food source for the wild was lost, the crops of the settlers suffered.
A hemp mill for flax or linen was established at where College Corner now is. It was horse driven, likely it was a breaking mill where the stems of the hemp were crushed between rollers, breaking them up so that when soaked the long threads could be more easily removed from the stems. Likely the mill was driven by a horse pulling a long sapling around in a circle.
The Government made a land purchase from several Indian chiefs, called the 12 Mile Purchase. Essentially, the Government obtained for settlement land west of the Gore, on a line parallel to the Greenville Treaty Line, but twelve miles west of it. Many Indians, including Tecumseh, protested loudly that those who sold the land did not have right to it. This no longer put the Four Mile on the edge of the frontier.
Jacob Lybrook, son of Philip and Anna (Miller), married Elizabeth Crawford, dau of William and Isabella (McClure), Franklin County, Indiana
John Nelson, son of Joseph, married Nancy Lybrook, dau of Philip and Anna (Miller), Preble County, Ohio
Francis Moss, son of Edmund and Elizabeth (Barnett), married Polly Webster, dau of Samuel and Susannah (Bagby), Franklin County, Virginia William Brown, son of William and Sarah (Guffy), married Eva Kingery, dau of Jacob and Franky, Preble County, Ohio
1810 - 1814 War of 1812, Indian Threat from Muncytown. There were no local incidents, unless a couple lost horses were actual Indian thefts. The Indian fear swept every where. Several people "escaped" transient Indian "War" parties, but they were so good that the Indians had not gotten close to them. It is reported that some even carried guns coming to Dunker church services.
1810 Hordes of mice.
Abraham Myers, brother of Minister John Moyer, arrives from Pennsylvania. His property was adjacent that of his brother.
(ca) Abraham Miller, son of Elder Jacob, married Nancy Huston, daughter of James, (? Butler County, Ohio)
1811 William Henry Harrison defeats the Prophet at Prophets Town on the Tippecanoe River in western Indiana. This broke Tecumsah's Indian league. The Prophet (his brother) had promised the Indians complete protection from the bullets of the white man, it didn't happen!
The 12 Mile Purchase was surveyed and opened for sale.
Jacob Kingery Sr. died
Henry Lybrook arrived from Virginia. His original property was in Preble Co. Ohio, but he owned land later in Indiana, then moved to Michigan.
Jacob and John Ritter take land in Center Twp. on the Four Mile.
Jacob Huston, son of James and Sarah, married Catherine Kingery, dau of Jacob and Franky, Preble County, Ohio
Isaac Miller, son of Isaac, married Mary Witter, dau of Christopher and Mary (Ulrey), Preble County, Ohio
1812 Governor William Henry Harrison review the local militia at the village of Boston, just north of the Four Mile settlement. It must have been a gala festivity, with the Territorial Governor present, probably everyone who could would be present. It is noted that even Indians were there to observe the review of the militia. This all probably brought severe conscience surveying by the Dunkers. They were pacifists, they had suffered much from the militia in the past, because they refused the drill, and the drinking, cursing and carousing that normally were present with it, and because they refused to acceed to popular causes, frequently being caught between two belligerent sides and suffering because of it. The militia review was decidedly militeristic, war with Great Britain was imminent, possibly already declared. The West was directed at the British Forts at Detroit and westward: forts they had neglected to abandon following the Treaty of Paris at the end of the Revolution, forts that belong rightfully to this new country. Even Canada was declared subject to their hostile rule, in need of assistance toward freedom. At the same time, here was Governor William Henry Harrison, and EVERYONE was going to see him.
James Madison was reelected President with Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts as Vice President.
Tobias Miller put a dam on Indian Creek at his place and brought in burrs to grind corn. He also ran a sawmill with it.
(ca) Daniel Hart married Nancy Currey, Wilkes County, North Carolina
On December 16th, at about 2 AM, the ground shook, and continued shaking for two days (estimated 8.3 on the Rictor Scale).
1813 (continued) On January 23, it shook again, severely (8.2 Rictor). On the 27th, early in the morning, it shook constantly for one whole minute. Finally, on February 7, at 4 AM, there were 2 extreme shocks, the second the most severe of all (8.4 Rictor). It was reported that trees in the forest even fell, and these were trees that had not fallen in the great wind of 1807. (This was the New Madrid Earthquake. It changed the course of the Mississippi River, leaving the Oxbow lakes in western Tennessee. The river is reported to have flowed upstream because of the earth quake). The earthquake shook the Four Mile severely, though no one knew what was the cause. The shaking continued intermittently for 2 years. A great religious revival resulted.
Isaac Miller, still living in Greene Co., OH., had joined the militia gathering at Xenia, OH., Ft. McArthur. He died of camp sickness.
The Four Mile Church elected Baltzer Lybrook and William Moss to the ministry. Both of these lived in the Upper Four Mile area while John Moyer and Daniel Miller both lived in the Lower Four Mile. Because of the distance, the church decided to meet as two congregations, one in each of the areas, under the respective ministers. To go to the other area meant a travel time of as much as 2 hours in "horse and buggy" days. This concept continued to the mid 20th Century, when automobile transportation cut the distance and time considerably.
Baltzer Lybrook, son of Philip and Anna (Miller), married Mary Eikenberry, dau of Peter, Jr., and Elizabeth (Landis), Preble County
David Rinehart, son of Adam and Hannah, married Polly Fellers
1814 A violent tornado swept east out from the Four Mile community. South of the Morning Sun community it was claimed by oldtimers to be the "worst ever".
Col. John Miller built a grist mill on Pleasant Run. (The mill stones are reported to still be buried in the mud on the bottom.)
William Crawford, John Kingery and David Landis died.
Daniel Hart came to Indiana Territory from Wilkes Co., NC. His property was sold to him by Philip Lybrook. It was on the State Line, Indiana side (his son, John, built the large brick house still standing on the Boston Pike at the state line.)
Henry Eikenberry, son of Peter, Jr, and Elizabeth (Landis), married Betsy Kingery, dau of Joseph and Eve (Miller/Ritter), in Preble County, Ohio. Joseph gave them his land in Indiana Territory, now the Witter farm on Nine Mile Road.
1815 The Battle of New Orleans, generaled by Andrew Jackson, saved the west -to the settlers who lived here. Its import swept the frontier and raised "Andy" to popular adulation. The War was over, "We Won!"
Potter John Miller built his new brick house. He made his own brick and his nephew, Samuel, Tobias' genius son, designed it for him. It stands one mile south of College Corner on the "Brookville" Road, on the north corner of his property.
There were hard times following the War of 1812. Many lost their properties. Maybe as a result of this, there was a new influx to the Four Mile over several years. To the Preble Co. side came Daniel Brower and David Rinehart. To Indiana Territory came Christian Garver and Jacob Alexander.
Edmund Moss, Jr. son of Edmund and Elizabeth (Barnett), married Nancy Kingery, dau of Joseph and Eve (Miller/Ritter), Preble County, Ohio.
(ca) Henry Moss, son of Edmund and Elizabeth (Barnett), married Francis
Jacob Ritter, son of John and Eve (Miller/Kingery), married Sally Witter, dau of Christopher and Mary (Ulrey), Preble County, Ohio
(ca) John Ritter, son of John and Eve (Miller/Kingery), married Sally Lybrook, dau of Henry and Hannah (Hankey)
John Coffman married Catherine Witter, dau of Christopher and Mary (Ulrey)
1816 Presidential Election year: The Democrat-Republicans nominated James Monroe of Virginia, with Daniel T. Tompkins of New York as Vice President. The Federalists nominated Rufus King of New York for the Presidency, but were split over Vice Presidential candidates, then they lost the election.
Indiana obtained its statehood. Benjamin Harrison was elected governor. This was a very bad year, everywhere, but especially on the frontier. This is called the Year That Had No Summer. A popular expression was: "1816 and froze to death!" It got cold at night all summer and crops would not grow, There was a killing frost at least once during every month. June 5 and 6, the temperature dropped to below 40, then on the 7th it snowed. There were killing frosts all three nights. By June 11th, the corn was withered and dead in the field. It was replanted, then in July the new stand was killed by another killing frost. On August 20, the temperature again plunged and any remaining crops were destroyed. Sept. 27 saw the start of winter with another killing frost. That winter was one of the worst ever experienced. The snows were two feet deep with a terrible ice crust on top. Many survived only because the deer were trapped by the snows and ice and could not escape the hunters. Following that winter, deer were so scarce that they could not be depended on as a source for meat, nor was the common deerskin britches and jacket any more available. (The cause is identified as an explosion that destroyed a volcano on the island of Tambora, Java. The resulting dust cloud covered the earth and filtered the light from the sun, and thus the heat that the earth received.)
An Indian Village was on Elkhorn Creek, near the East Branch of the Whitewater. A total of 300-400 Shawnee and Delaware Indians are identified as resident in the East Branch Valley.
Elder Jacob Miller died. Barbara Miller, his widow, came to the Four Mile, to the home of Philip Lybrook.
John Rife arrived in Indiana from the upper Valley of Virginia. He took land northwest of the Lybrooks and Moss.
Jacob Witter, son of Christopher and Mary (Ulrey), married Agnes Huston, dau of Samuel and Elizabeth (Brown)
Rhubin Webster, ?son of James, married Polly Miller, dau of Potter John and Phoebe (McClure), Franklin County, Indiana
Jacob Fisher married Mary Moss, dau of Edmund and Elizabeth (Barnett)
1817 (continued) WINTER.
A Quaker Trace is run from State Line (near Cincinnati) to Richmond, to Ft. Wayne. It seems to have followed the Carolina trace through Union County - through Billingsville, east of future Liberty.
William S. Clark came to Indiana from Guileford Co., NC. He is connected with the Salem Quaker Church at Cottage Grove (carpenter, built it.) and was storekeeper and postmaster there.
Mary (Ulrey) Witter died.
John Coffman married Catherine Witter, dau of Christopher and Mary (Ulrey), Franklin County, Indiana
John Huston, son of James and Sarah, married Sarah Vansell, Franklin County, Indiana
Jacob Ridenour, son of Peter and Margaret (Darcuss), married Letita Brown
1818 Treaty of St. Marys (OH). William Henry Harrison at old Girty's Town. Indians cede central Indiana lands to government. (Wabash Country)
There had been migration west on the Indian Road through the 12 Mile Purchase Lands. The fertile Middle Branch Valley of the Whitewater River lay just beyond the line, and was really too attractive. Dunker settlers spilled over into it - The Nettle Creek Church
Aaron Miller, minister, moves to the Nettle Creek area (Hagerstown, IN), possibly from the Four Mile, probably from Dayton.
Polly (Webb) Kingery died.
Daniel Fosher and family move to the Whitewater River, Fiant's Ford, (Yankeetown). They are Pennsylvania Dunkers, via Virginia. She is an Eckel. He is a medical doctor. Probable formation of the Whitewater Church there.
Jacob Miller, son of Potter John and Phoebe, married Elizabeth Bell
Philip Lybrook, son of Philip and Anna (Miller), married Hannah Pentecost, dau of John and Jemima, Wayne County, Indiana.
Poindexter Toney, son of Carey and Betsy (Doran), married Catherine Lybrook, dau of Philip and Anna (Miller), Wayne County, Indiana.
Jesse Toney, son of Carey and Betsy (Doran), married Eve Lybrook, dau of Philip and Anna (Miller), Wayne County, Indiana.
Henry Brown, son of William and Sarah (Guffy), married Susannah Witter, dau of Christopher and Mary (Ulrey), Union County, Indiana
John Akers married Mary Kingery, dau of Joseph and Eve (Miller/Ritter)
Joseph Alexander, ?son of Jacob, married Catherine Kingery, dau of John and Anna (Richardson)
1819 Panic of 1819. Florida purchased from Spain.
Potter John quits (the pottery).
Carey Toney and family arrive from Virginia (possibly via Boone Co., WVA.) He takes up land next the Rineharts and Browers in Preble Co.
Jacob Miller Miller, son of Tobias and Sarah (Henderson), married Ann Crawford, daughter of William and Isabella (McClure)
(Isabella McClure was half-sister to Sarah Henderson.)
George Witter, son of Christopher and Mary (Ulrey), married Fanny Kingery, dau of Martin and Polly (Webb), (? Union County, Indiana)
Samuel Ridenour, son of Peter and Margaret (Darcuss), married Barbara Miller, dau of Tobias and Sarah (Henderson), Franklin County, Indiana
1820 Delaware Indians move to Missouri.
Indiana legislature establishes capitol site at Indianapolis. (Mouth of Fall Creek, crossing of several Indian trails. Delaware lands)
Land prices are dropped to $1.25/acre and the amount of land can be as little as a quarter section (160 Acres).
James Monroe was sweepingly reelected to the Presidency. Daniel D. Tompkins of New York was reelected as Vice President. It was called the era of good feeling, that swept the nation.
Missouri Compromise - Missouri entered Union as slave state, no slave states to be farther north in the new Louisiana Purchase.
Elder David Miller moves to the Nettle Creek and forms the church there by that name. (Hagerstown, IN.)
Abraham Kingery died.
John Gaby moves to the Whitewater from Pennsylvania. His land was west of the Fiants. (west of Brownsville. Probably kin to Saloma Fiant)
Tobias Miller, son of Potter John and Phoebe (McClure), married Jane Wolverton. - and moves to the Racoon Creek in Parke Co. IN. This began a move that took most of that family to new lands in western Indiana. This was the first of what became a flood of Four Mile children, moving to new lands acrossed the state.
Martin Kingery, son of Jacob and Franky, married 2/wife, Mary Hilderbrand, Dayton, Ohio
James Toney, son of Carey and Betsy (Doran), married Sally Lybrook, dau of Philip and Anna (Miller), Wayne County, Indiana
Samuel Witter, son of Christopher and Mary (Ulrey), married Mary Brown, dau of William and Sarah (Guffy)
Jonathan Ridenour, son of Peter and Margaret (Darcuss), married Rosanna Potterf, cousin, Preble County, Ohio (lived on Twin Cr.)
David Shideler, son of Henry, married Rebecca Landis, dau of David and Elizabeth (Peckleshimer), Franklin County, Indiana.
1821-1822 Cholera Epidemic, many die. (Epidemic came up from Cincinnati)
1821 Union County formed out of parts of Franklin, Wayne and Fayette Cos. We're our own county now! Considerable Political activity for county offices, and of great importance, where will be the County Seat? To start with, it is Brownsville, in the west part of the County, over by John Gaby. Col. John Miller in the south lives almost on the Franklin County Line. Abraham Miller, son of Potter John, lives in Franklin County. Some of the Lybrook and Moss lands are almost to the Wayne County Line in the north. John Rife owns adjacent properties with one in either County, but lives in Wayne County. Primarily, the Four Mile Community is in Union County, IN, and the adjacent portions of Preble County, OH.
Edmund Toney and Susannah Toney died.
The Universalists begin to hold services on Indian Creek.
Martin Kingery, son of Joseph and Eve (Miller/Ritter), married Phoebe Lybrook, dau of Philip and Anna (Miller), Union County, Indiana.
Jacob Kingery, son of John and Anna (Richardson), married Elizabeth Kingery, dau of Martin and Polly (Webb), Franklin County, Indiana.
Daniel Eikenberry, son of Peter, Jr. and Elizabeth (Landis), married Sarah Kingery, dau of Joseph and Eve (Miller/Ritter)
1822 James Huston and Samuel Huston died, the same day.
Joseph Kingery, son of Jacob and Barbara (Lybrook), married Elizabeth Moyer, dau of John and Elizabeth (Witter), Union County, Indiana.
Samuel Moyer, ?son of Abraham, married Susannah Kingery, dau of Samuel and Sarah (Heckman), Union County, Indiana
1823 Potter John Miller sold out and moved to Parke Co. IN. Sons, Daniel and Abraham, remain here.
Edmund Moss, Sr. died
Squire Thompson moves to the new Michigan Country. Lives in the old French Fort at Niles, MI. His mother, Avarilla (Toney) Thompson and brother, William, return to the (W) Virginia mountains. (no such place as West Virginia yet!)
Town of Liberty plotted as County Seat of Union Co.
Martin Miller, son of Col. John and Nancy (Capper), married Cassandra Yaeman, dau of Samuel and Mary, Union County, Indiana
John Morgan married Barbara (Miller) Morgan, dau of Isaac and Hannah (Webb), Green County, Ohio, 2/husband
1824 Presidential Election: This election raised a furor far beyond the frontier, rolling down from the mountains to the sea. The Democratic-Republican legislative caucus nominated William Harris Crawford of Georgia. There was no opposition party, the Federalists had gone - disintegrated. Then Tennessee nominated its favorite son: Andrew Jackson. Others did likewise. Soon the Democratic-Republican Party had 4 candidates. Andrew Jackson received over a third of the Electorial votes, but not a majority. John Quincy Adams received just under a third, and the remaining third was split between Crawford and Henry Clay of Kentucky. Since none received a majority of the Electorial votes, the law cast the contest into the House of Representatives. There, Clay's supporters threw their votes to John Quincy Adams, who then won. Can't you just hear the screams of anquish as word filtered acrossed the nation?
Jacob Huston moves to Portage Prairie in northwestern Indiana (near South Bend). It was so nice not to have to clear off forest trees! This was part of Michigan Territory originally. Route seems to have been the Quaker road to Ft. Wayne, then through the woods to the St. Joseph River. (Now US 27 to US 33)
Elizabeth (Landis) Eikenberry died.
1825 Barbara (Lybrook) Miller, Christopher Witter, Henry Landis Jr, Jacob Kingery Jr. and Mary (Fosher) Hale died.
Benjamin Whiteneck comes to Union Co.
Henry Lybrook and family moves to Niles, MI.
Samuel Davis moves to Parke Co. IN
Peter Eikenberry, Jr. son of Peter and Fronica (Groff), married 2/wife, Barbara Carver, (? Preble County, Ohio)
Daniel Miller, son of Potter John and Phoebe (McClure), married Lydia Eikenberry, dau of Peter, Jr. and Elizabeth (Landis)
(ca) Samuel Eikenberry, son of Peter, Jr. and Elizabeth (Landis), married Patsy Crawford, dau of William and Isabella (McClure)
Samuel Davis married Barbara Miller, dau of Potter John and Phoebe (McClure), Franklin County, Indiana
Jacob Alexander, son of Jacob, married Isabella Kingery, dau of John and Ann (Richardson), Union County, Indiana
Archibald Toney, son of Carey and Betsy (Doran), married Dorcas White, Preble County, Ohio
David Heckman married Mary Moyer, dau of John and Elizabeth (Witter)
(ca) Lewis Shideler, son of Henry, married Polly Bake
Richard Strong (MD) married Susanna Gaby, dau of John and Hannah, Union County, Indiana
1826 Miami and Pottawatammi Indians cede upper Wabash Valley, Tippicanoe and Miami River lands to government.
Lewis Shideler moves to Union Co. from Washington Co. PA. buys David Landis farm.
Isaac Miller moves to Nettle Creek. Hagerstown, IN
Squire Thompson moves to Cass Co. MI.
Henry Moss moves to Putnam Co. IN
(ca) James Miller, son of Potter John and Phoebe (McClure), married Almira
Samuel Miller, son of Tobias and Sarah (Henderson), married Elizabeth Kinzie.
Ray Moss, son of Edmund and Elizabeth (Barnett), married Nancy Hopper, Union County, Indiana
Abraham Moss, son of William and Elizabeth (Lybrook), married Nancy Rife, dau of John and Francis (Crist), Union County, Indiana.
Samuel Witter, son of John and Anna (Moyer), married Catherine Landis, dau of David and Elizabeth (Pecklesheimer), Union County, Indiana
Joseph Neff married Susannah Toney, dau of Jesse and Frony (Sink)
1827 National Road came into Richmond from east, all the way from Cumberland, Md. It is 80 feet wide, graveled from 30 to 40 feet wide. It had heavy traffic from the first, 100 wagons a day. These were Conastoga Wagons, pulled by 4 to 6 horses or oxen. Shipping charges were $10 a ton. Lighter traffic was with "shake-guts", carts pulled with smaller horses.
Jacob Kingery, son of Samuel and Sarah (Heckman), married Sarah Moyer, dau of John and Elizabeth (Witter), Union County, Indiana.
1828 Presidential Election: The supporters of Andrew Jackson rightfully claimed that the procedure that lost him the 1824 election were counter to the intent of the Constitution. The election process was revised and much power was placed in the state legislatures. Here the popular vote became a real power. The Democratic-Republican Party split open and evolved into the Democratic Party with the nomination of Andrew Jackson and John C. Calhoun. The National Republican Party nominated John Quincy Adams with Richard Rush. Andrew Jackson became the next President. He was the western hero, and likely drew rowdy support all over Indiana.
John Ritter moves to Michigan.
Philip Moss, son of William and Elizabeth (Lybrook), married Barbara Moyer, dau of John and Elizabeth (Witter), Union County, Indiana.
John Whiteneck, son of Benjamin, married Lucy Kingery, dau of Martin and Polly (Webb)
Alston Wyatt married Elizabeth Moss, dau of William and Elizabeth (Lybrook)
Lewis Mead married Fanny Kingery, dau of Joseph and Eve (Miller/Ritter)
Robert Cook married Elizabeth Kingery, dau of Jacob and Barbara (Lybrook)
1829 An early school is founded near Col. John Miller at Contrares. Abner Langley is teacher.
Joseph Pagin moves to LaPorte. IN
Henry Lybrook moves east to Cass Co. MI.
Samuel and James Miller move to old Ft. Dearbourn, in Illinois Territory, become founding trustees of town called Chicago.
John Rife and John Ritter died.
Abraham Kingery, son of Joseph and Eve (Miller/Ritter) married Margaret Ridenour, dau of Peter and Margaret (Darcuss), Preble County, Ohio.
John Miller, Jr. son of Col. John and Nancy (Capper), married Emily Yaeman, dau of Samuel and Mary.
William S. Clark, son of Hezekiah, married Elizabeth Huston, dau of Thomas Jr. and Tabitha (Wright), Union County, Indiana
Matthias Fosher, son of Daniel and Marillis (Eckel), married Elizabeth Rife, dau of John and Francis (Crist), Wayne County, Indiana
Jacob Niccum married Frances Toney, dau of Carey and Betsy (Doran), (He was a miller on Middle Four Mile Cr.)
James Morrison married Nancy Kingery, dau of Jacob and Barbara (Lybrook)
Greenbury Steel married Fanny Kingery, dau of Michael and Betsy (Webb)
Calvin Sullivan married Elizabeth Witter, dau of John and Anna (Moyer)
1830 Micheal Kingery moves to Blooming Grove area, Franklin Co. N. (Webb kin)
School house built near John Hart.
Pork is packed in barrels and shipped by wagon to Cincinnati. There it is shipped by flatboat down the river to New Orleans.
Elder Daniel Miller moves to Parke Co., IN., Ladoga Church.
Elder Aaron Miller moves from Nettle Creek to Portage Prairie.
William Miller to Portage Prairie.
Abraham Miller, son of Potter John and Phoebe (McClure), married Susannah Lybrook, dau of John and Francis (Toney).
Jacob Landis, son of David and Elizabeth (Peckleshimer), married Mary Kingery, dau of Samuel and Sarah (Heckman)
Hiel Hamilton married Nancy Kingery, dau of Samuel and Sarah (Heckman)
Jacob Landis married Mary Kingery, dau of Samuel and Sarah (Heckman)
George McVey married Polly Kingery, dau of Martin and Polly (Webb)
Joseph Ellis married Fanny Moss, dau of Edmund and Elizabeth (Barnett)
John Smith married Elizabeth Moss, dau of Francis and Polly (Webster)
1831-1832 Cholera Epidemic Every family lost some!
1831 Elder David Miller from Nettle Creek to Portage Prairie.
Samuel Witter to Portage Prairie.
Elder Baltzer Lybrook and Elizabeth (Lybrook) Moss died.
William Miller, son of Tobias and Sarah (Henderson), married Mary Miller, dau of Col John and Nancy (Capper), Union County, IN.
(ca) Jacob Miller, Jr., son of Abraham and Nancy (Huston), married Sarah Backus
Elder William Moss, son of Edmund and Elizabeth (Barnett), married 2/wife, Mary (Eikenberry) Lybrook, dau of Peter, Jr. and Elizabeth (Landis), (widow of Elder Baltzer), Union County, Indiana.
Daniel Brower, son of Jacob II and Anna (Rudy), married Sarah Shively, dau of Adam, Preble County, Ohio
Isaac Ridenour, son of Peter and Margaret (Darcuss) married Margaret Doty Valentine Alexander, ?son of Jacob, married Anna Kingery, dau of John and Anna (Richardson)
1832 Fairhaven builds log tavern, used by drovers on new pike to Hamilton.
Presidential Election: Andrew Jackson reelected President, Martin Van Buren as running mate.
Anna (Moyer) Witter, Eve (Lybrook) Toney, Mary (Kingery) Landis, Samuel Moyer, Polly (Miller) Webster and Marillis Fosher died.
Edmon Moss, Philip Kingery and Benjamin Eikenberry to Carroll Co. IN
Thomas Miller and John Fosher to Putnam Co. IN (Ladoga Churches)
Jacob Ritter to Portage Prairie.
David M. Kingery, son of Samuel and Sarah (Heckman), married Elizabeth Deardorff, Union County, Indiana.
(ca) Jesse Toney, son of Carey and Betsy (Doran), married 2/wife, Anna Marilla Doran
Benjamin Eikenberry, son of Henrich and Mary (Landis), married Catherine Moss, dau of William and Elizabeth (Lybrook), Union County, Indiana.
(ca) Henry Landis, son of David and Elizabeth (Peckleshimer), married Catherine Johnson
1833 November 12, spectacular exhibit of shooting stars, filled the sky for several nights. (Began American studies of meteorites, comets, science of astronomy. This was the Leonids, 33 year cycle.)
town of Morning Sun founded on Pike toward Hamilton.
John Huston, Elizabeth (Landis) Fosher and Anna (Miller) Lybrook died.
John Witter and Jacob Miller, Jr. to Portage Prairie.
Samuel Miller from Chicago to Michigan City, sets up as grain trader to shipping on Lake Michigan. Builds historic Lighthouse.
Edmon Moss, son of William and Elizabeth (Lybrook) married Susannah Rinehart, dau of David and Polly (Fellers), Preble County, Ohio.
Thomas Miller, son of Col. John and Nancy (Capper), married Susan Young, Putnam County, Indiana. (He Finally Got MARRIED!)
Philip Dice married Elizabeth Fiant, dau of Daniel and Salome (Gaby)
Reuben Moss, son of Francis and Polly (Webster), married Sarah Smith
1834 Nationally good times, lot of land speculation. True in Four Mile area.
The McCormick Reaper was invented, attracted much attention and speculation, (but probable not use, on Four Mile).
Major migration from Four Mile to Michigan Territory (North West Indiana): LaPorte and St. Joseph Cos., IN (Portage Prairie), and Berrien Co. MI.
Henry Landis, Poindexter Toney and David Shideler died.
Daniel Fiant and family moved westward into Fayette Co. IN
George and Jacob Kingery to Hancock Co. IN
Elder John Myers (Moyer) to Carroll Co.,IN Bachelor Run Church.
Jacob Landis, son of David and Elizabeth (Peckleshimer), married 2/wife Hannah Hamilton
Benjamin Ellis married Susannah Moyer, dau of John and Elizabeth (Witter) Reuben Paddock married Rachel Huston, dau of Thomas Jr. and Tabitha (Wright)
William Huston, son of William, married Frances Lybrook, dau of John and Fanny (Toney). They moved to Henry Co. IN
Joseph Fields married Polly Kingery, dau of Michael and Betsy (Webb)
1835 Phebe (Lybrook) Kingery and Catherine (Lybrook) Toney died.
(ca) Jacob Kingery, son of Jacob and Barbara (Lybrook), married Hannah Perkins.
(ca) Squire Toney, son of Carey and Betsy (Doran), married Sarah Beck
George Wilson, son of Josiah, married Nancy Ridenour, dau of Peter and Margaret (Darcuss)
George Brown married Elizabeth Ridenour, dau of Peter and Margaret (Darcuss)
(ca) Joseph McCarty, son of Elizabeth (Williams) McCarty, married Mary Surface
1836 President Andrew Jackson issued the Specie Circular. This effectively stopped exchange and use of money on the frontier, except for hard coin. Since such was in short supply, it made for very hard times.
Presidential Election: Democratic Party nominated Martin Van Buren for President and Richard Mentor Johnson of Kentucky as running mate. The Whig Party had four candidates, the most popular one being William Henry Harrison. Martin Van Buren won.
Union County was all astir with the trial of the murderer, Isaac Heller.
Texas won its Independence.
John Gaby died.
Jonathan Toney, son of Carey and Betsy (Doran), married Mary Toney, dau of Jonathan and Elizabeth (Caperton), Giles County, Virginia
John Garver married Fanny Moss, dau of Edmond, Jr. and Nancy (Kingery)
Russell McCoy married Fanny Kingery, dau of Abraham and Mary (Huston)
1837 Panic of 1837 -due to the Specie Circular by Pres. Jackson
The National Road went west out of Richmond, to cross Indiana and on to St. Louis on the Mississippi. The Main Street Covered Bridge was the best west of Cumberland. Traffic from the east poured through Richmond.
College Corner founded by Samuel Ridenour. Methodist Episcopal Church formed.
Lewis Shideler moves to College Corner and builds Shideler Addition to town. (family were carpenters)
Henry Lybrook died.
Samuel Eikenberry moved to Iowa.
William Lybrook, son of John and Fanny (Toney), married Elizabeth Cunningham, dau of William and Elizabeth (Zolman)
Harmon Toney, son of Carey and Betsy (Doran), married Fanny Kingery, dau of Jacob and Barbara (Lybrook)
Robert Moore married Susanna Ridenour, dau of Peter and Margaret (Darcuss)
William Brown, son of William and Eva (Kingery), married Amy Hatfield, Union County, Indiana
1838 The "Telegraph" was invented, an instrument to send messages over a wire Iowa becomes a Territory.
Jacob Ritter died.
Philip Kingery, son of Jacob and Barbara (Lybrook), married Sarah Eikenberry, dau of Henry and Eve (Miller/Ritter), Union County, IN
Jonas Fiant, son of Daniel and Salome (Gaby), married Mary Monger
Christian Wirt (?West) married Lydia Fiant, dau of Daniel and Salome (Gaby)
Daniel Rife, son of John and Francis (Crist), married Cynthia Stanley, dau of Zachariah and Mary (Bedwell), Wayne County, Indiana
John Myers Jr., son of John and Elizabeth (Witter), married Lavina Shideler, dau of David and Rebecca (Landis), Union County, Indiana
James Wilson married Nancy Kingery, dau of Abraham and Mary (Huston)
1839 Elder William Moss moves to Miami Co IN. Mexico Church.
Elder Aaron Miller, Jesse Toney, Michael Kingery, Sarah (Heckman) Kingery died.
Christian H. Kingery, son of Samuel and Sarah (Heckman), married Sarah Witter, dau of George and Fanny (Kingery), Union County, Indiana
Peter Eikenberry, son of Henry and Betsy (Kingery), married Elizabeth Lybrook, dau of Philip and Hannah (Pentecost)
Joseph Leedy married Lydia Witter, dau of Samuel and Mary (Brown), lived Upper Twin Cr.
Henry Webb married Hannah Kingery, dau of Micheal and Betsy (Webb)
1840 Presidential Election: Democratic Party renominates Martin Van Buren. Whig Party renominates William Henry Harrison with John Tyler as running mate. Harrison receives almost 4/5ths of the Electorial vote, although the popular vote is much nearer even. "Tippicanoe and Tyler, too." William Henry Harrison was our own man, first governor, etc.
Concord Church formed, (New Light) Christian. Carey Toney one of charter members.
Martin Kingery, Joseph Eikenberry, Sarah (Vansell) Huston and William Cunningham died.
Samuel Kingery, son of Jacob and Franky, married 2/wife Sarah (Witter) Ritter, dau of Christopher and Mary (Ulrey), Union County, Indiana.
George Rigsby married Esther Kingery, dau of Martin and Polly (Webb)
John Kingery, son of Jacob and Barbara (Lybrook), ?married Mahala Doran
(ca) Benjamin F. Miller, son of Col. John and Nancy (Capper), married Lorinda Birdsell
Jesse Doty married Mary Ridenour, dau of Peter and Margaret Darcuss
Jonathan Ridenour, son of Samuel and Barbara (Miller), married Martha Divan
Robert Rhea married Sarah Rinehart, dau of David and Polly (Fellers)
Daniel Leedy married Mary Huston, dau of John and Sarah (Vansell), Butler County, Ohio
Michael Priser married Catherine Fiant, dau of Daniel and Salome (Gaby)
1841 President William Henry Harrison died in office. Took sick from ceremony of Oath of Office. John Tyler becomes first Vice President to succeed to Presidency by death of President.
Minister Daniel Leedy moves to Huntington Co. IN.
Abraham Miller and Edmond Moss Jr. died.
Jesse Toney moves to Fulton Co. IL (date ?) "two wagons, dog under 2nd" claim to fame: "split rails with Abe Lincoln".
James Miller, son of Abraham and Nancy (Huston), married Mary Huston, dau of Jacob and Catherine (Kingery).
Philip Lybrook, Jr. son of John and Fanny (Toney), married Jane (Allen) Tardy
Obed Rinehart, son of David and Polly (Fellers), married Alice Rhea
(ca) Henry Black married Rachel Miller, dau of Abraham and Nancy (Huston) Reuben Bartlett married Catherine Kingery, dau of Martin and Polly (Webb)
1842 A mechanical device called the "Sewing Machine" was invented.
Minister Daniel Leedy moves on to Wabash Co. IN.
Elder David Miller, Philip Lybrook, Eve (Miller) Kingery and Susan (Young) Miller died.
Martin Witter, son of George and Fanny (Kingery), married Lydia Eikenberry, dau of Henry and Elizabeth (Kingery)
(ca) Joseph Huston, son of Thomas Jr and Tabitha (Wright), married Lucinda.
(ca) Abraham Rife married Ann
Peter Coon married Catherine Kingery, dau of Michael and Betsy (Webb)
1843 Isabella (McClure) Crawford, Sarah (Witter) Kingery, Barbara (Miller) Davis and Elizabeth (Fishborn) Landis died.
William Hart, son of Daniel and Nancy (Currey), married Francis Hunt
Thomas Miller, son of Col. John and Nancy (Capper), married 2/wife Sally Ronk, dau of Jacob and Hannah
John Fiant, son of Daniel and Salome (Gaby), married Hannah Fidler
1844 Presidential Election: Democratic Party nominated James K. Polk of Tennessee with George Mifflin of PA as running mate. The Whig Party nominated Henry Clay of Kentucky. Polk received almost 2/3rds of the Electorial vote.
William Miller, who had moved to South Bend, IN., was elected to the Indiana State Legislature.
Peter Ridenour and Catherine (Kingery) Huston died.
John Drook moves to Grant Co. IN
Elder John Hart moves to Carroll Co. IN Bachelor Run Church
Samuel Kingery, son of Jacob and Franky, married 3/wife, Elizabeth (Williams) McCarty, Union County, Indiana.
Baltzer Lybrook, son of Jacob and Elizabeth (Crawford), married Jane Cunningham, dau of William and Elizabeth (Zolman)
John Webster married Katherine Toney, dau of James and Sally (Lybrook)
Lot Moss, son of Edmond Jr. and Nancy (Kingery), married Margaret Eikenberry
1845 Typhoid Fever Epidemic. many deaths, especially among children.
Ex-President Andrew Jackson died, much mourning.
Philip Moss moves to Carroll Co. IN
Sarah Huston and Sarah (Henderson) Miller died.
John Hart, son of Daniel and Nancy (Currey), married Maria Lybrook, dau of Jacob and Elizabeth (Crawford)
Michael Kingery, son of Michael and Betsy (Webb), married Lucy Webb
1846-1847 Mexican War
1846 Potter John and Phoebe Miller return to Union Co. from Parke Co. live with son, Daniel.
Peter Eikenberry Jr., John Lybrook, Eli Burkett and Elizabeth (Hardman) Miller died.
Jacob B. Landis to Carroll Co. IN
Minister Hiel Hamilton to Howard Co. IN
Jacob Rife, son of John and Francis (Crist), married Esther Stanley, dau of Zachariah and Mary (Bedwell)
Thomas Niccum married Maria Kingery, dau of Joseph and Elizabeth (Moyer)
Nathaneal McMeans married Katherine Lybrook, dau of John and Fanny (Toney)
1847 Elder John Whiteneck to Wabash Co. IN
Abraham Rinehart to Cass Co. IN
John Toney family take Wagon Train to Willamette Valley, OR.
Fanny (Toney) Lybrook and Sarah (Keene) Toney died
Universalist Church organized in south part of County. Col. John Miller and wife, daughter, Elizabeth, and son, Benjamin Franklin, are charter members.
Daniel Lybrook, MD, son of John and Fanny (Toney), married Magdalena Rinehart, dau of David and Polly (Fellers), Preble County, Ohio.
1848 Presidential Election: Zachary Taylor ran with Millard Fillmore
Oregon Territory organized.
Liberty-College Corner Turnpike built.
Phoebe (McClure) Miller, Susannah (Rinehart) Moss, Henry Brown, Richard Strong died.
William Hart to Noble Co. IN
John Moss, son of Abraham and Nancy (Rife), married Atlanta Gard, dau of Lot and Anna (Vance), Union County, Indiana.
Thomas AE McMeans maried Susan Toney, dau of James and Sally (Lybrook)
Lewis Shideler, son of David and Rebecca (Landis), married Diana Harter
Joseph Rinehart, son of David and Polly (Fellers), married Catherine Flora
(ca) Isaac Miller, son of Abraham and Elizabeth (Hatfield), married Elizabeth Buckley
Henry Kingery, son of Martin and Phoebe (Lybrook), married Amelia Perdue
1849 Squire Thompson with sons - Gold Rush to California, ox train,
Squire died at arrival in San Francisco of Cholera.
Cholera Epidemic - starts at Boston, IN and moved eastward into Ohio
Minister Thomas Miller from Putnam Co. IN to Missouri.
Daniel Leedy to Jefferson Co. IA
Elder John Hart from Twin Creek to Bachelor Run, Carroll Co
Daniel Fosher, Daniel Rife, George Witter, Atalanta (Gard) Moss, and Charity (Florea) Thompson died.
Baltzer Kingery, son of Jacob and Barbara (Lybrook), married Delilah Ritter
William Kingery, son of Jacob and Sarah (Moyer), married Mary Etter
Abraham Rinehart, son of David and Polly (Fellers), married Elizabeth Toney, dau of James and Sally (Lybrook)
Canada Gard, son of Lot and Anna (Vance), married Mary Rinehart, dau of David and Polly (Fellers)
Sanders Widup married Malinda Hart, dau of Daniel and Nancy (Currey)
James Riley married Elizabeth Toney, dau of William and
1850 President Zachary Taylor takes ill and dies in office. Vice President Millard Fillmore succeeds as President.
Fugitive Slave Law enacted. The result was the Underground Railroad. One line went through the Four Mile. One station was the Vanzandt House.
William Hart comes back to Wayne Co. lives south of Boston.
Jesse Toney starts for California from Fulton Co. IL, gets to Newton Co. MO., son Franklin dies, he settles there.
Abraham Witter moves to Iowa.
Thomas Huston Jr., Samuel Ridenour, Elizabeth (Rife) Fosher, Sarah (Hardman) Miller and Dorcas (White) Toney died.
(ca) Baltzar Lybrook, son of John and Fanny (Toney), married Jane Ann Tardy, dau of Dr. Robert and Jane (Allen)
John Moss, son of Abraham and Nancy (Rife), married 2/wife, Elizabeth Jarvis.
Joel Railsback married Elizabeth Hart, dau of Daniel and Nancy (Capper), Wayne County, Indiana
David Fiant, son of Daniel and Salome (Gaby), married Nancy Jane
Henry Miller, son of Daniel and Lydia (Eikenberry), married Susannah Kingery, dau of Martin and Phoebe (Lybrook)
1851 Potter John Miller and William Hart died.
Daniel Witter, son of George and Fanny (Kingery), married Eleanor Kingery, dau of Joseph and Eve (Miller/Ritter), Union County, Indiana
Benjamin Baltzer Witter, son of George and Fanny (Kingery), married Fanny Kingery, dau of Joseph and Eve (Miller/Ritter), Union County, Indiana
James Hart, son of Daniel and Nancy (Currey), married Minerva Smelser
Baltzer Eikenberry, son of Daniel and Sarah (Kingery), married Cassandra Ammerman
William H. Ridenour, son of Samuel and Barbara (Miller), married Elizabeth Bevis
Joseph Moss, son of Edmond Jr. and Nancy (Kingery), married Martha Fether John Stewart married Elizabeth Moss, dau of Edmond Jr. and Nancy (Kingery)
1852 Presidential Election: Franklin Pierce elected as President.
Ridenour family begins building of the Junction Railroad, becomes Cincinnati, Hamilton and Indianapolis Railroad. Reaches Oxford or College Corner. (see Eliz. Miller letter, June 20, 1852, railroad ride)
Daniel Witter moved to Carroll Co. IN
George Hart, son of Daniel and Nancy (Currey), married Hannah Raper
1853 Joseph Leedy -Upper Twin Cr. to Huntington Co. IN
Emily (Yeaman) Miller and Jacob Alexander died.
John W. Smith married Hannah Miller, dau of Abraham and Elizabeth (Hatfield), Franklin County, Indiana
1854 Daniel Leedy moves to Willamette Valley, Oregon.
Minister Daniel Miller leads colony from Four Mile, to Monroe Co. IA so weakens Lower Four Mile Church, eventually closed.
Canada Gard and Robert Rhea to Cass Co. IN
Benjamin B. Witter moved to Carroll Co. IN
Francis Moss, Mary (Hildebrand) Kingery, Mary (Eikenberry/Lybrook) Moss, Catherine (Moyer) Harter and Mary (Brower) Moss died.
John Helm married Margaret Ridenour, dau of Jonathan and Rosanna (Potterf)
Abram Waggoner married Emily Miller, dau of Abraham and Elizabeth (Hatfield)
Aaron Miller, son of Abraham and Nancy (Huston), married Mary Zigler
Samuel Kingery, son of Jacob and Sarah (Moyer), married Susannah Metzger
1855 Elder Daniel Miller (of Putnam Co) moves to Monroe Co. IA
Lewis Miller and David Kingery to Monroe Co. IA
Philip Moss and Benjamin Eikenberry to Butler Co. IA
Sarah (Williams) Moss, Margaret (Darcuss) Ridenour and Malinda (Chasteen) Toney died.
(ca) Jacob Moss, son of Abraham and Nancy (Rife), married Elizabeth Hawkins.
(ca) Isaac Hart, son of Daniel and Nancy (Currey), married Mary Lafuze
Aaron Moss, son of Edmond Jr. and Nancy (Kingery), married Elizabeth Tolbert
Martin Moss, son of Edmond Jr. and Nancy (Kingery), married Lovina Miller Roger Monger married Margaret Moss, dau of Edmond Jr. and Nancy (Kingery) John French married Mary Moss, dau of Edmond Jr. and Nancy (Kingery)
1856 Presidential Election: James Buchanan
Tobias Miller, Barbara (Lybrook) Kingery, Daniel Hart, Margaret (Ridenour) Kingery, Elder John Hart and Susannah (Fosher) Pagin died.
John Eikenberry, son of Henry and Betsy (Kingery), married Delilah Clark, dau of William and Elizabeth (Huston)
1857 Panic of 1857
Elder William Moss, Mary (Brown) Witter, Rhubin Webster and Barbara (Miller) Morgan died.
David Lybrook, son of John and Fanny (Toney), married Fanny Eaton
John Witter, son of George and Fanny (Kingery), married Amy (French) Stewart, Union County, Indiana.
James Grimes married Sarah Hart, dau of Daniel and Nancy (Currey)
John Moss, son of Edmond Jr. and Nancy (Kingery), married Mary Ann Kennedy
1858-1860 Typhoid Epidemic
1858 Lincoln - Douglass Debates
John Nelson, Nancy (Lybrook) Nelson, Nancy (Kingery) Moss, Nancy (Capper) Miller and Mary (Lybrook) Fisher died.
Hezekiah Clark, son of William S. and Elizabeth (Huston), married Sarah Line, Union County, Indiana
Peter D. Ridenour, son of Samuel and Barbara (Miller), married Sallie Beatty
Samuel Ridenour, son of Jonathan and Rosanna, married Louise Zitzer
John Shanklin married Frances Miller, dau of Abraham and Susannah (Lybrook)
William Euton married Sarah Moss, dau of Edmond Jr. and Nancy (Kingery)
1859 John Brown Raid on Harper's Ferry
West College Corner, IN. founded.
Daniel Eikenberry, Samuel Kingery, Philip Lybrook Jr., Carey Toney and Martha (Eikenberry) Moss died.
Daniel Moss, son of Abraham and Nancy (Rife), married Elizabeth Miller, dau of Daniel, Jr., and Susan (Oliver), Dayton, Ohio
Charles P. Ridenour, son of Samuel and Barbara (Miller), married Catherine Near
John Lybrook, son of Philip, Jr. and Hannah (Pentecost), married Mary Clark
William Toney, son of Harmon and Fanny (Kingery), married Margaret Witt
1860 Presidential Election: Abraham Lincoln
Civil War begins.
Junction Railroad reaches Liberty, Dec. 1.
Pony Express mail service started with California.
Elder Abraham Moss, Philip Moss, Barbara (Moyer) Moss, Sarah (Guffy) Brown, William Lybrook, and Joseph Kingery died.
Henry Witter, son of George and Fanny (Kingery), married Mary Ann Moss, dau of Abraham and Nancy (Rife)
Daniel Brower becomes Presiding Elder of Four Mile Church.